Global summit on
August 27-28, 2015, Dubai, UAE

Scientific Programme(Day 1 : Aug-27-2015)

Keynote Forum

A H Bandivdekar
National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, India
keynote: Challenges Due to Host and Pathogenic Variation in Management of Sexual Transmission and Pathogenesis of HIV
Dr Atmaram Bandivdekar completed his Ph D Degree at the age of 31 years from Mumbai University. Bandivdekar was the Post-Doctoral and Carrier fellow at Population Council, New York. He was also the visiting scientist at UC Davis Primate Center. He is the Deputy Director of National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health which is the premier Institute in India in the field of Reproductive Health Research. He has published more than 70 papers in peer reviewed journals and also the book and two conference proceedings. He also has six National and International awards for his scientific contributions. Bandivdekar is actively involved research on understanding sexual transmission of HIV and development of preventive and therapeutic vaccine and formulation for prevention of HIV transmission

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is primarily transmitted through sexual route following CD4 independent binding of HIV to human Mannose Receptor (hMR) on sperm and vaginal epithelial cells and further transmits to distal cells. Moreover poor proof reading activity of HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme results into continuous viral variation. This results in presence of distinct variants in blood, urogenital cells and secretion of the same individual which represents the initial virus responsible for sexual transmission of HIV into partner. Sperm and vaginal epithelial cells showed the specific localization of hMR on sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. The binding of HIV to hMR induces secretion of Matrix Metallo-proteinases 9 (MMP9).Less than 10% of vaginal epithelial cells infected female partner of serodiscordant couples and more that 90% in concordant couples showed the localization of hMR. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of C2-V3 region of HIV1 C env gene showed the presence of distinct variants in PBMCs and urogenital cells of the same individual with different number ofN-linked glycosylation (NLG) sites and variation in infectivity. Further it was also observed that the viral variation was higher in female as compared to that in male. The study suggests association of hMR in sexual transmission of HIV. The study suggeststhat the secretion of MMP9 following HIV binding to hMRmay induce the cell permeability and therefore the risk of sexual transmission of HIV. Presence of distinct HIV variants in PBMCs and urogenital cells which may influence the viral affinity to host and immune cells and therefore may affect the transmission, infectivity and pathogenecity. These variable host and pathogenic responses remain the challenges in designing the strategies for management of pathogenesis and sexual transmission of HIV.

Keynote Forum

Jeanne M Fair
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, USA
keynote: Birds shed RNA-viruses according to the 20/80 Rule
Jeanne Fair is a scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory with a focus in epidemiology and animal disease ecology. Dr. Fair is the principle investigator for a long-term (19 years) research project on the impacts of contaminants on avian populations, and Editor-in-Chief of the Guidelines for the Use of Wild Birds in Research. In 2013, she served as Program Manager for the Long-term Strategy for Environmental Stewardship and Sustainability at Los Alamos. Currently, she is on assignment with the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

The control of zoonotic viral agents depends upon a robust understanding of how individual variation of infection load impacts disease transmission dynamics. In many host-pathogen systems, it has been found that ~20% of the population is responsible for ~80% of the transmission events. Although host contact rates can account for some of this pattern, pathogen transmission dynamics also depend upon host infectiousness. We conducted a meta-analysis of pathogen shedding rates of 24 host (avian) – pathogen (RNA-virus) experimental infection studies. Results suggest that viral count data adhere to the 20/80 Rule or Pareto Principle. Additionally, the relative position of a bird in a distribution of viral counts was affected by extrinsic but not any measured intrinsic host factors. Knowing that virus shedding in birds is concentrated to a few individuals suggests that control efforts can be focused.

Agriculture and Plant Virology
Antiviral Drug Discovery and Development

Session Introduction

Aboul-Ata E. Aboul-Ata
Plant Virus and Phytoplasma Res. Dept, Egypt
Title: Plant-Based Vaccines: Novel and Low-Cost Possible Route for Mediterranean Innovative Vaccination Strategies
AE Aboul-Ata, is a president of Arab Society for Virology (ArSV). He is also secretary general for Egyptian Society of Virology (ESV). He is also a member of Asian Council of Science Editors (ACSE). He has different American Research Projects. He is reviewer and editor for different scientific journals in Asia, Africa, Europe and USA

A plant bioreactor has enormous capability as a system that supports many biological activities, that is, production of plant bodies, virus-like particles (VLPs), and vaccines. Foreign gene expression is an efficient mechanism for getting protein vaccines against different human viral and nonviral diseases. Plants make it easy to deal with safe, inexpensive, and provide trouble-free storage. The broad spectrum of safe gene promoters is being used to avoid risk assessments. Engineered virus-based vectors have no side effect. The process can be manipulated as follows: (a) retrieve and select gene encoding, use an antigenic protein from GenBank and/or from a viral-genome sequence, (b) design and construct hybrid-virus vectors (viral vector with a gene of interest) eventually flanked by plant-specific genetic regulatory elements for constitutive expression for obtaining chimeric virus, (c) gene transformation and/or transfection, for transient expression, into a plant–host model, that is, tobacco, to get protocols processed positively, and then moving into edible host plants, (d) confirmation of protein expression by bioassay, PCR-associated tests (RT-PCR), Northern and Western blotting analysis, and serological assay (ELISA), (e) expression for adjuvant recombinant protein seeking better antigenicity, (f ) extraction and purification of expressed protein for identification and dosing, (g) antigenicity capability evaluated using parental or oral delivery in animal models (mice and/or rabbit immunization), and (h) growing of construct-treated edible crops in protective green houses.Some successful cases of heterologous gene-expressed protein, as edible vaccine, are being discussed, that is, hepatitis C virus (HCV). R9 mimotope, also named hypervariableregion 1 (HVR1), was derived fromthe HVR1 of HCV. It was used as a potential neutralizing epitope of HCV. The mimotope was expressed using cucumber mosaic virus coat protein (CP), alfalfa mosaic virus CP P3/RNA3, and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) CP–tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV) CP as expression vectors into tobacco plants. Expressed recombinant protein has not only been confirmed as a therapeutic but also as a diagnostic tool. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), HSV-2 gD, and HSV-2 VP16 subunits were transfected into tobacco plants, using TMV CP–TMGMV CP expression vectors.

Sunil Kumar Snehi
Barkatullah University, India
Title: Molecular identification of begomovirus isolates associated with mosaic disease of ornamental Jatropha species from India
SUNIL KUMAR SNEHI is currently working as Assistant Professor at Department of Microbiology, Barkatullah University, India.

The surveys were conducted in years 2009 to 2011 at CSIR-NBRI, garden Lucknow and observed the natural infection of virus disease in ornamental Jatropha species with the ~30-35% disease incidence. The naturally infected J. podagrica exhibited severe yellow mosaic and vein yellowing symptoms, J. multifida showed yellow mosaic & mild leaf curl symptoms (Fig.1B) and J. integerrima showed severe mosaic and yellow mosaic symptoms. For molecular detection of begomovirus associated with mosaic disease of J. podagrica, J. integerrima and J. multifida were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using begomovirus specific primers. The resulting amplicons of ~1.2 kb of in all the ornamental species of Jatropha samples were sequenced and sequence data was analyzed and submitted in GenBank database. Based on highest sequence identities of partial DNA-A genome (~1.2 kb) and close phylogenetic relationships Jatropha mosaic India virus in J. Podagrica (HQ848382); Tomato leaf curl Patna in J. multifida (HQ848381) and Papaya leaf curl virus in J. integerrima (JQ043440) were identified. Present study molecular detection identification of the begomovirus isolates associated with mosaic disease of ornamental Jatropha species from India will be discussed in the conference.

Zaki Monawar Eisa
King Fahd Hospital, Saudi Arabia
Title: Prevalenceof HBV, HCV, and HIV Infections among Individuals Included in premarital screening program at Jazan Province
Zaki Monawar Eisa Graduated from college of medicine (Saudi Arabia). He received MSc in Virology from London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and PhD in Virology from Imperial College London. He became honorary clinical teacher at University of Glasgow. He is the Head of Virology and Molecular Diagnosis at King Fahd Hospital, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

We evaluated the performance of Elite microplate analyzer (Bio-Rad) and the related assays (ULTRA line) for the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in premarital screening tests. They are compulsory tests for all people planning to marry. Seroconversion panels, total of 28134 specimens collected from two well defined population groups (Male and Female) in different geographical regions in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. We have analyzed for evidence of HIV, HBV and HCV infection through year of 2009 and 2010. HBsAg positive/HBsAg negative (n=540/n=27594), anti-HCV positive/negative (n=59/n=28075), and anti-HIV positive/negative (n=9/n=28125). Male individuals showed very high incidence of HBV, HCV and HIV cases compared to female participants although the number of people participated from both gender was almost equivalent and with positive HIV were 7 cases while only two female were detected with HIV positive.

Kathleen Hefferon
Cornell University, USA
Title: Plant- Made Biopharmaceuticals for Developing Countries
Kathleen Hefferon completed her PhD at the University of Toronto in Molecular Virology. She was a post-doctoral fellow and then a faculty member at Cornell University. Kathleen has written two books, edited several others and holds a number of patents. Kathleen’s research interests include agricultural biotechnology, food science and global health.

Plant-produced vaccines offer enormous potential for providing relief to developing countries by reducing the incidence of infant mortality caused by infectious diseases. Vaccines derived from plants have been demonstrated to effectively elicit strong immune responses. These plant-made biopharmaceuticals are inexpensive to produce, require fewer purification steps, and can be stored at ambient temperatures for prolonged periods of time. As a result, plant-produced vaccines have the potential to be more accessible to the rural poor. This presentation will provide an overview of plant-produced biopharmaceuticals that are under developmentto target infectious diseases including human immunodeficiency virus, malariaand Ebola virus.

Abdelaleim I. ElSayed
Zagazig University, Egypt
Title: Biology and management of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus: An historical overview

Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) is one of the most widespread virus diseases affecting sugarcane worldwide. The virus was responsible for drastic economic losses in most grown regions and remains a major concern for sugarcane breeders. Affected plants have intense yellowing of the midrib, which spreads to the leaf blade followed by tissue necrosis from the tip of the leaf spreading downwards and reduced plant growth. The propagation of sugarcane by cuttings has allowed the spread of yellow leaf by distribution of infected stock. Viral infections are well known to affect carbon assimilation and metabolism in host plants. Such symptomatic leaves are usually characterized by increased respiration, reduced photosynthesis, a change in the ratio of hexose to sucrose and an increase in starch. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed worldwide distribution of at least eight SCYLV genotypes (BRA, CHN1, CHN3, CUB, HAW, IND, PER, and REU). Evidence of recombination was found in the SCYLV genome which contains potential recombination signals in the ORF1/2 and ORF5. It emphasized that recombination plays an important role in selection pressure exerted on SCYLV.

Judith N. Torimiro
Chantal Biya International Reference Centre for Research on Prevention and Management of HIV/AIDS (CIRCB), Cameroon
Title: HCV Genetic Diversity and the Impact on Diagnosis and Antiviral Drug Susceptibility in Cameroon from 1992 to 2010
Judith Torimiro heads the Molecular Biology Laboratory at the Chantal Biya International Reference Centre for HIV/AIDS Research (CIRCB) in Cameroon and she is a Senior Lecturer of Molecular Biology of Infectious Diseases in the Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon. She is holder of a Ph.D. Degree (Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London). Judith’s research interest is to contribute to the understanding of virus dynamics and evolution and its impact on its diagnosis, disease progression and drug susceptibility. Since 1992, she has contributed in describing the genetic diversity of retroviruses and hepatitis viruses including HIV Type 1, HTLV, HBV, HDV, HCV, HGV, as well as HLA, TRIM5 alpha, KIR and other human genes that modulate HIV infection.

Cameroon shows a high endemicity for hepatitis C virus (HCV, 3 - 17%) which is characterized by a great genetic variability with Genotypes 1, 2 and 4 reported. Globally, 7 HCV genotypes and 67 subtypes have been classified. The highly variable envelope proteins (E1E2) can elicit cross-neutralizing antibodies that target several epitopes of HCV. Drug mutation profile is associated to drug class and varies by HCV genotype/subtype. Some of these mutations exist as natural polymorphisms in certain genotypes and some pre-existing mutations confer resistance to HCV antiviral drugs in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients. On this background, we downloaded sequences from the HCV Sequence Database of the Los Alamos National Library and those we generated from our laboratory, giving a total of 45 C, 152 E1, 150 E2 and 256 NS5B sequences isolated from 1992 to 2010 from Cameroon. Phylogenetic relationship of these sequences was inferred using MEGA 5.05 and Geno2Pheno online tool to identify mutations associated to HCV drug resistance and the PredictProtein online tool to predict per residue protein-protein interaction sites. Phylogenetic analysis of HCV C, E1 and NS5B regions revealed Genotype 1 and Genotype 4 while the E2 region showed Genotypes 1, 2 and 4. Many natural polymorphisms in NS5B were identified with Q248E (75%), L266M (74%), I297L (66%), R270K (64%), S231R (57%), V251K (53%) most frequently identified. The NS5B sequences reported in 2013, showed the presence of F415Y mutation (2%) associated to resistance to sofosvubir, a nucleoside analogue which inhibits the viral RNA polymerase. Although an endemic infectious disease in Cameroon, the frequency of genotypic drug resistance to HCV NS5B antiviral drugs is low. These findings however support the possible challenges in the development of prophylactic vaccines and treatment against HCV and the need for widespread interventions for its prevention and control.

Divocha Valentina A
State Enterprise Ukrainian Research Institute for Medicine of Transport, Ukraine
Title: Antiproteinase vaccine at the flue
Divocha Valentina in 1967 she graduated from I. I. Mechnikov Odessa State University, Faculty of Biology (Department of Virology). In 1973 continued her postgraduate study ate Odessa Institute of Virology and Epidemiology (specialty virology). In 1974 she was awarded her candidate degree with the thesis "Interaction of Coxsackie B viruses with sensitive cell cultures and their antigenic relationships." In 2009 she was awarded her doctoral degree with the thesis entitled "Biological basis antiprotease therapy of influenza." Under her leadership performed a doctoral and two master's theses. Scientific experience is 35 years. I have more than 180 scientific publications, 2011 monograph, textbook "Virology" (2012), 10 patents, 3 innovations. I am currently working as the head of the Laboratory of Experimental and Clinical Pathology for Ukrainian Research Institute of Transport Medicine, is the supervisor of the nine research programs in virology and biochemistry.

Proteolytic activation is widespread among viruses of different taxonomic groups. Thus, the proteolytic activation of influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses is carried by trypsin-like proteinases of a host cell which hydrolyze the peptide bond between arginine and lysine. Objective: to extract trypsin-like proteinase from the lungs of healthy mice and get hyperimmune serum to it for the treatment of experimental influenza. We used the lungs of 100 white mice to isolate trypsin–like proteinase; influenza virus A/PR/8/34; white rats were used to produce hyperimmune antiproteinase sera to study their protective function in the body of white mice infected with a lethal dose of influenza A virus. From the lungs of healthy mice 6 isoforms of trypsin – like proteinases were isolated, and hyperimmune antiproteinase rats’ sera were obtained to them. At the treatment by these sera the white mice, previously infected with a lethal dose of influenza A virus, 60% of the animals under experiment survived only by the use of the serum to the third isoform of trypsin-like proteinase. In the control group, where no treatment was performed, the infected with a lethal dose of influenza virus animals had a 100% lethality on the 4-5th day after infection. The results obtained show that it is possible to get antiproteinase vaccine for the flu, which will block the flu virus in the intercellular space and disrupt the development of the pathological process

Amjad Ali
University Mansehra, Pakistan
Title: Molecular epidemiology of Dengue virus (DENV) infection during the major outbreaks of 2011 and 2013 in two different provinces of Pakistan

Dengue virus (DENV) has been reported for the first time in 1994 in Pakistan. However, for the last nine years several outbreaks including two major epidemics have been reported mainly in Lahore and Karachi. In all previous studies, limited number of samples was collected mainly from a single major city. In this study, the distribution of DENV serotypes during the 2011 outbreak that occurred in Punjab province and the second most recent 2013 outbreak that occurred in Swat, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan were investigated. In these two outbreaks, 422 people died and thousands were hospitalized. We directed a detailed investigation into these two outbreaks of DENV in Pakistan. 1350 blood samples were collected from patients infected with Dengue virus in 11 major cities in two provinces (Punjab and KP) of Pakistan and were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using serotype specific primers. Results showed that DENV2 (41.64%) and DENV3 (40.14%) were the most prevalent serotypes compared to DENV1 and DENV4 during the 2011 and 2013 outbreaks. Sequence analysis based on NS3 gene obtained from DENV-2 and DENV-3 isolates collected in Swat during 2013 epidemics showed 100% nucleotide sequence similarity to DNEV-2 and DENV-3 isolates previously reported from Lahore, Punjab province in 2011 which further confirmed that DENV spread from Punjab to Swat, KP province. More over the phylogenetic analysis grouped the DENV-2 isolates into cosmopolitan genotypes while DENV-3 into genotype-III.Mixed infection of DENV-2and DENV-3 serotypes was found only in two cities in Punjab and three cities in KP province. All the people having mixed infection died suggesting the possible role of Antibody dependent Enhancement (ADE). Individuals between the ages of 15 to 45 years were mostly infected.

HIV and Other Retroviral Diseases
Antiviral Vaccine Development
General Virology and Basic Sciences
Food virology

Session Introduction

Amir Reza Khalighi
Razavi Hospital, IRAN
Title: Effect of human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) in seropositive infertile women on Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) outcome
Amir Reza Khalighi has completed his Medical Doctorate (MD) at the age of 26 years and postdoctoral studies as an Infectious Diseases Specialist from Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS), IRAN at 2005. He had passed a complementary course on Viral Hepatitis, too. He is the director of infectious control committee of Razavi Hospital in Mashhad & the infectious diseases consultant of the same hospital, too. He has published 4 books & more than 14 papers in Iranian or International journals and has been serving as a referee board member of journal of Gynecology (IRAN) & journal of Dermatology (USA).

Introduction: Human T-cell Lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has infected more than 20 million people worldwide. Northeast of Iran, Mashhad, the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province, is endemic for HTLV-1 with a prevalence of 3% among general population. We evaluated the ICSI outcome in our program for (HTLV-1) serodiscordant couples (SDCs) with the female infected in comparison with control group.
Materials and Methods: This study was performed between 2007 and 2011 in Novin Infertility Treatment Center (Mashhad, Iran). We examined 32 ICSI cycles of HTLV-1 infected women in comparison with an age matched control group (n=62). ICSI outcome was compared regarding fertilization rate (FR), embryo quality parameters, implantation rate (IR), clinical pregnancy rate (PR), and abortion rate (AR).
Results: Fertilization (p=0.15), implantation (p=0.33), and pregnancy rate (p=0.12) were similar between the groups. No difference was found regarding the number of transferred embryos (on day 2 or 3) and cryopreserved embryos, multiple pregnancies, or abortion rates between the groups.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that the embryo quality and ICSI outcome are not affected by HTLV-1 infection in serodiscordant couples. The major finding of this study is that the outcome of ICSI in HIV-I-infected patients and seronegative controls is similar.

Asima Banu
Title: H1N1 outbreak among health care personnel tertiary care hospital: Fright, flight or fight
Asima Banu has completed M.D degree in Medical Microbiology from Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, India. Currently working as a Professor and Unit Head of Microbiology in Department of Medical Microbiology, Bowring and Lady Curzon Hospital attached to BMCRI, Bangalore, India. She has published more than 40 papers in reputed journals and a reviewer for many journals. She is also active in the field of HIV Medicine, Infection Control, Medical education and Biomedical Waste Management

Introduction: During the spring of 2009, a pandemic of H1N1 influenza, which is popularly called as swine flu, emerged in Mexico and it spread worldwide. Again in 2015 India experienced a similar but more severe outbreak from January 2015. The 2009 outbreak affected not only the community at large, but also the health care providers (HCP) who attended to these cases. We report here, the occurrence of the H1N1 infection among the health care personnel (HCP) who were working in our hospital during 2009 outbreak and the measures adopted by our public sector hospital in preventing these infections occurring again among HCP during 2015.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology of a tertiary care, referral, and teaching hospital. The study design is an observational report of the case series. Materials and Methods: A total of 107 suspected cases of H1N1 influenza were screened between August 2009 and November 2010, of which 31 were health care personnel. And a total of 95 suspects screened from 2015 January of which 10 were HCP The throat and nasal swabs were collected in viral transport media and were sent to a government. designated, referral laboratory for testing and confirmation by the Polymerase Chain Reaction.
Results: Of the 31 health care personnel who were screened, in 2009-10 7(22.6%) were confirmed as positive for H1N1 influenza. The maximum number of cases occurred in the age group of 15-45 years and all the health care workers who were positive were male doctors, except one, a female nurse. None of the health care workers had used personal protective equipment (PPE). But of the 10 screened in 2015, 01(10% ) was only positive.
Conclusions: Healthcare personnel are at increased risk of occupational exposure to the H1N1 virus, based on their likelihood of encountering the patients with this illness.In 2009, due to lack of awareness and less preparedness, we had more exposure and infections Subsequently during the present outbreak, due to stringent use of PPE and infection control protocols, the number of HCP infections reduced dramatically. Thus PPE should be worn by all the health care workers during the initial contact with any patient with an unknown health status.

Apostolos Vantarakis
University of Patras, Greece.
Title: A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for the detection of Adenovirus 40/41 on fresh ready-to-eat foods.
Apostolos Vantarakis is an Associate Professor of the University of Patras, Greece. He was an Assistant Professor at the Democritus University of Thrace, Greece. He received his B.Sc. in Biology from University of Patras, M.Sc. in Genetics from UC Swansea, Wales, U.K, and Ph.D from University of Patras. He has published more than 65 peer reviewed articles, and 2 chapters in books as well as he has translated one book. He has participated in more than 60 international and 80 Greek conferences. His research has focused on the impact of environment microbiological quality (water, air, soil) as well as food quality. Current research areas include development of molecular methods for the detection and identification of waterborne and foodborne microbes (viruses, bacteria and parasites) as well as the risk assessment of the water and food.

Viruses are able to persist in the environment, and on fresh produces, thus can cause serious foodborne problems. The aim of this study was the evaluation of our recently developed simple and cost-effective, one-step, single-tube adenovirus types 40/41 specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, for the detection of hAdV40/41 in fresh ready-to-eat food samples. LAMP assay targeted the hexon gene and had the advantages of being rapid, simple, specific, and sensitive. The fresh produces used were lettuces and strawberries. The samples were inoculated with a known concentration of hAdV40/41 and analyzed by LAMP. Analytical approaches with and without virus concentration and nucleic acids extraction steps were investigated. Each LAMP assay was conducted with a 20μl reaction mixture consisting of the set of six primers, an isothermal mastermix, and target DNA. The reaction components were mixed in a tube and were tested at 95˚C for 2min (1 cycle), 69˚C for 60min (1 cycle), from 95˚C to 80˚C (36 cycles) for 2min. The amplified product was detected by adding 1μl of 1,000 X SYBR green dye to each reaction tube. In addition, the LAMP products were detected by agarose gel (2%) electrophoresis with UV light transillumination. Quantification of hAdV40/41 with Real-Time PCR was also performed. Taking everything into consideration the developed hAdV40/41 specific LAMP assay could be used for the virological analysis of fresh ready-to-eat food samples within 60min. This assay is expected to provide a very robust, innovative and powerful molecular diagnostic tool for the food industry and the Public Health authorities.

Hammadi Alhilal
Al-Qadisiya university, Iraq
Title: The viral load of Hepatitis B virus in serologically-categorized acute and chronic Hepatitis Iraqi patients
Hammadi A.Alhilali PhD is an Assistant Professor in Medical microbiology/immunology from the college of medicine, Baghdad University, Iraq. He is interested in diagnostic immunology and published more than 18 papers. He is an Editorial Committee member of journal of Clinical and Cellular Immunology. He is the vice dean for scientific and postgraduate affairs.

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a global, affecting an estimated number of 2 billion persons worldwide, a large number of them remain chronically infected. In this study, which carried out during Sep. 2011- Nov. 2012, we aimed to evaluate the viral load ranges in the different stages of the disease in a group of 120 Iraqi patients with Hepatitis B. These patients have been clinically and serologically diagnosed to have the disease using ELISA for HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBeAb, and categorized accordingly into; Acute phase (No=6, 5%) in whom the viral load (IU/ml) was ranged between 3.05*107- 4.98*107. For those in whom the Hepatitis has assumed to be chronic, the results were as follow; immune tolerance sub-group (No=10, 8.3%), immune clearance sub-group (No=6, 5%), inactive carrier sub-group (No=64, 53.4%), and reactivation sub-group (N0=30, 25%). Using quantitative RT-PCR, the viral loads were; (4.2*106-6.65*107), (1.01*105-2.3*106), (8.72*102-8.83*103), and (3.38*104-3.56*107) in the above sub-groups, respectively. The viral load were invalid in 4(3.3%) of patients in whom all serological tests were negative except HBeAb. These significant differences have lead to the conclusion that of highest infectivity may be in the acute phase followed by the immune tolerance and reactivation phases, while the immune clearance and inactive carrier were the least infective among others.

Andras Takacs
University of Pannonia, Hungary
Title: Brome streak mosaic virus (BrSMV) with an increasing importance in southern Hungary
Andras Takacs has completed his Ph.D at the age of 26 years from University of Veszprem. He is the director of Plant Protection Institute at University of Pannonia. He has published more than 250 papers in reputed journals and also conferences have been serving as a member of different scientific groups.

Infection with Brome streak mosaic virus (BrSMV) was first described in the former Yugoslavia in 1980. BrSMV - formerly abbreviated BStMV - is a member of Tritimovirus genus in the family Potyviridae. The assembled RNA is 9672 nucleotides in length excluding a 3’-terminal poly A sequence and shows typical potyvirus genome organization. The virus is transmitted by arthropods and mites from the family Eriophydae. Some of Gramineae genera (e.g. Avena, Bromus, Hordeum, Triticum) are susceptible to BrSMV infection. It causes chlorotic leaf streaking on infected Bromus and Hordeum plants. BrSMV is an emerging pathogen in Hungary causing yield losses in cereals especially in wheat and barley from the 2000 years. Wheat leaf samples were collected in Szeged at the experimental station of Cereal Research Non-profit Ltd. Co. in June from 60 naturally infected plants annually between 2005 and 2013. Collected samples were stored in ELISA plastic bags at 4 oC. Natural virus infection of BrSMV were tested serologically by double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) by Clark and Adams (1977). Kits for ELISA derived from Loewe Biochemica (Sauerlach, Germany). Substrate absorbance was measured at 405 nm on Labsystems Multiscan RC ELISA reader (Labsystems Co.). Test samples were considered positive if their absorbance values exceeded three times those of the healthy control samples. Between 2005 and 2008 BrSMV was not detected. In 2009 one, in 2010 two and in 2011 eight BrSMV infected samples were considered. The numbers of the infected samples were 12 in 2012 and 11 in 2013. The weather conditions in the last years were favourable for the spread of the virus vectors, therefore the incidence of BrSMV diseases increased.

Aina Monayajoaina Monayajo
Food Technology Department Microbiology Unit Moshood Abiola Polytechnic. Nigeria
Title: Microbial Loads of Suya Sold In Abeokuta Metropolis Ogun State Nigeria
Salimot Aina Monayajo is a seasoned Chief Technologist in the Department of Food Technology Abeokuta. She specialises in General Microbiology/ virology. She has been imparting knowledge of real practical in virology for more than two decades in the institution. She has many publications in reputable journals both in local and international journals.

The microbial load of ‘suya’ sold within Oke-ilewo in Abeokuta metropolis was determined. Suya from four selected locations were taken, two samples from each location were examined bacteriologically for both total bacteria count and fungi count. Mean total plate and fungi count varied form 2.1175 x 102 to 3.0075 x 102 cfu/g and 3.0 x 101 to 5.448 x 102 cfu/g of samples respectively. The total plate count and fungi count of most samples were within recommended safe limit for suya except for samples from Ibara round about (Sample D) which had the highest bacteriological count. Isolation of feacal coliform from all samples in this investigation should be a serious concern to consumers. This calls for urgent improvement on the hygienic handling of the product by suya processors.

Kiran Nazir
Ocean University of China, China.
Title: Viral and bacterial interaction leads super infection
Kiran is PhD Dr. She has done her graduation and post graduation from University of Karachi Pakistan. After post graduation she persuaded her MS in the field of Marine Biology and her research work was based upon innate immunity of sea animals. She worked for journal of Pakistan medical students as regional Chairperson. She has attended many conferences related with Biotechnology, Medical Science. She did many short courses for drug and molecular medicine from top medical college of Pakistan. She served as visiting lecturer in the top class medical college of Pakistan as Physiology Demonstrator. She worked as Research Volunteer for one year in the Multi Disciplinary lab MDL in the Aga Khan hospital Pakistan. She has published three papers in reputed international journals and more than six papers are submitted in other international Journals. Her first publication title was Extraction and screening of bioactive compounds with antimicrobial properties from selected species of mollusks and crustaceans published in Journal of Clinical and Cellular Immunology.

Illness has a tendency to aid more complexities if there is no cure. Researchers from all over the World are keen interested to find interaction between Viral and bacterial infections. In most of the cases bacterial sepsis occurs following viral infections normally effects lungs. A person is most likely to attack with super infection (Viral and Bacterial) if spend longer in hospital. Common bacterial cell-wall particles are recognized by a set of receptors called the NOD-like receptors. Viral infection produces some immune system chemicals which help to make the Nod1 and Nod2 hypersensitive. Virus causes so much tissue damage that it creates a favorable condition for bacterial infection to spread easily in the body. A lot of studies are currently being conducted on mortality rates linked to bacterial infections initiated from viral infections. The immunology behind the connection between viral and bacterial infections is slightly harder to understand and to overcome. The immune system is a highly complicated network of responses, but for both bacteria and viruses it starts by recognizing common proteins and glycoprotein’s found in microorganisms. Diseases do not happen in a vacuity, and sometimes it is the interaction between two different kinds of infections, that produces the most dangerous outcome and lethal effects.

Zareen Fatima
Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, Pakistan
Title: Co-ordinated evolution of dengue virus Type-2

Evolutionary, arthropod-borne RNA viruses (arboviruses) tend to evolve more slowly than other RNA viruses because of natural constraints associated with dual replication in mammalian and invertebrate hosts. Due to error prone replication and high rate of mutations, RNA viruses show greater adaptability to diverse environmental conditions and limiting the size of genomes. The small size of viral genomes forces strong evolutionary constraints which results in each genomic region encoding multiple and often conflicting functions. Due to the interplay of small genome with multiple functions, epistatic interactions occur confirming coordination between mutating sites in RNA viruses. We worked on identifying epistatic evolution in dengue virus type-2 using graphical methods. Dengue genome has mutations that are spread randomly throughout its genome. Single Likelihood Ancestor Counting (SLAC) analysis showed whole of DENV type 2 is under strong purifying selection. All of the sites under positive selection where found in nonstructural part of the genome, to check whether any of these mutations coevolved, we ran Bayesian Graphical Model (BGM) to identify all nodes that lead to epistatic interactions between different sites. Posterior significance level of 0.5 based on Neighbor Joining Tree was used to construct BGM. Most of the coordinated substitutions in the polyprotein were observed in non-structural portion of the genome. Studying coevolution among different mutating codons in RNA viruses provides a tool for the development of novel anti-viral drugs and vaccines.

Benjamin U. Ugwoke
University of Nigeria, Nigeria
Title: Information for preventing HIV/AIDS in Africa
Africa is one of the important continents in the world with numerous human and material resources. Efforts are seriously being made to ensure faster development of these resources. However, there are still challenges in the forms of poverty, illiteracy, hunger, child-maternal mortality, and pre-mature deaths arising from the influence of HIV/AIDS. Population increase, unemployment, peer influence, operations of sex workers, migration, and multiple marriages are some of the existing conditions which encourage the spread of this disease. This paper is centered on the need for preventing HIV/AIDS in Africa through acquisition and dissemination of appropriate information in appropriate formats and time to the people. It emphasizes the role of families, government and non-governmental organizations in fighting against HIV/AIDS. It also enumerates some hindrances to information dissemination and utilization among people of the continent.

Africa is one of the important continents in the world with numerous human and material resources. Efforts are seriously being made to ensure faster development of these resources. However, there are still challenges in the forms of poverty, illiteracy, hunger, child-maternal mortality, and pre-mature deaths arising from the influence of HIV/AIDS. Population increase, unemployment, peer influence, operations of sex workers, migration, and multiple marriages are some of the existing conditions which encourage the spread of this disease. This paper is centered on the need for preventing HIV/AIDS in Africa through acquisition and dissemination of appropriate information in appropriate formats and time to the people. It emphasizes the role of families, government and non-governmental organizations in fighting against HIV/AIDS. It also enumerates some hindrances to information dissemination and utilization among people of the continent.