Global summit on
Virology
August 27-28, 2015, Dubai, UAE

Scientific Programme(Day 1 : Aug-27-2015)

Keynote Forum

A H Bandivdekar
National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, India
keynote: Challenges Due to Host and Pathogenic Variation in Management of Sexual Transmission and Pathogenesis of HIV
Biography:
Dr Atmaram Bandivdekar completed his Ph D Degree at the age of 31 years from Mumbai University. Bandivdekar was the Post-Doctoral and Carrier fellow at Population Council, New York. He was also the visiting scientist at UC Davis Primate Center. He is the Deputy Director of National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health which is the premier Institute in India in the field of Reproductive Health Research. He has published more than 70 papers in peer reviewed journals and also the book and two conference proceedings. He also has six National and International awards for his scientific contributions. Bandivdekar is actively involved research on understanding sexual transmission of HIV and development of preventive and therapeutic vaccine and formulation for prevention of HIV transmission

Abstract:
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is primarily transmitted through sexual route following CD4 independent binding of HIV to human Mannose Receptor (hMR) on sperm and vaginal epithelial cells and further transmits to distal cells. Moreover poor proof reading activity of HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme results into continuous viral variation. This results in presence of distinct variants in blood, urogenital cells and secretion of the same individual which represents the initial virus responsible for sexual transmission of HIV into partner. Sperm and vaginal epithelial cells showed the specific localization of hMR on sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. The binding of HIV to hMR induces secretion of Matrix Metallo-proteinases 9 (MMP9).Less than 10% of vaginal epithelial cells infected female partner of serodiscordant couples and more that 90% in concordant couples showed the localization of hMR. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of C2-V3 region of HIV1 C env gene showed the presence of distinct variants in PBMCs and urogenital cells of the same individual with different number ofN-linked glycosylation (NLG) sites and variation in infectivity. Further it was also observed that the viral variation was higher in female as compared to that in male. The study suggests association of hMR in sexual transmission of HIV. The study suggeststhat the secretion of MMP9 following HIV binding to hMRmay induce the cell permeability and therefore the risk of sexual transmission of HIV. Presence of distinct HIV variants in PBMCs and urogenital cells which may influence the viral affinity to host and immune cells and therefore may affect the transmission, infectivity and pathogenecity. These variable host and pathogenic responses remain the challenges in designing the strategies for management of pathogenesis and sexual transmission of HIV.

Keynote Forum

Jeanne M Fair
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, USA
keynote: Birds shed RNA-viruses according to the 20/80 Rule
Biography:
Jeanne Fair is a scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory with a focus in epidemiology and animal disease ecology. Dr. Fair is the principle investigator for a long-term (19 years) research project on the impacts of contaminants on avian populations, and Editor-in-Chief of the Guidelines for the Use of Wild Birds in Research. In 2013, she served as Program Manager for the Long-term Strategy for Environmental Stewardship and Sustainability at Los Alamos. Currently, she is on assignment with the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

Abstract:
The control of zoonotic viral agents depends upon a robust understanding of how individual variation of infection load impacts disease transmission dynamics. In many host-pathogen systems, it has been found that ~20% of the population is responsible for ~80% of the transmission events. Although host contact rates can account for some of this pattern, pathogen transmission dynamics also depend upon host infectiousness. We conducted a meta-analysis of pathogen shedding rates of 24 host (avian) – pathogen (RNA-virus) experimental infection studies. Results suggest that viral count data adhere to the 20/80 Rule or Pareto Principle. Additionally, the relative position of a bird in a distribution of viral counts was affected by extrinsic but not any measured intrinsic host factors. Knowing that virus shedding in birds is concentrated to a few individuals suggests that control efforts can be focused.