World Congress on
Cancer and Prevention Methods
August 27-29, 2015, Dubai, UAE

Scientific Programme(Day 1 : Aug-27-2015)

Keynote Forum

Yoshiaki Omura
New York Medical College, USA
keynote: Non-Invasive, simple, quick diagnostic methods and safe, effective, individualized treatment of various cancers & their metastasis
Biography:
Professor Yoshiaki Omura received Oncological Residency Training at Cancer Institute of Columbia University & Doctor of Science Degree through research on Pharmaco-Electro Physiology of Single Cardiac Cells in Vivo and in Vitro from Columbia University. He published over 260 original research articles and 8 books. He is currently 1) Adjunct Prof. of Family & Community Medicine, New York Medical College; 2) Director of Medical Research, Heart Disease Research Foundation, New York; 3) President and Prof. of International College of Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics, New York; 4) Editor in Chief, Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research, International Journal of Integrative Medicine,which is indexed by 17 major international Indexing Periodicals. Currently he is also 5) Executive Editor of Journal of Integrative Oncology. Formerly he was also Adjunct Prof. or Visiting Prof. in universities in USA, France, Italy, Ukraine, Japan& China. His main research is on "Non-invasive, safe, quick diagnostic method & safe effective treatment of cancer & other intractable medical problems" and he developed several diagnostic methods & safe effective treatment of cancers which saved many lives.

Abstract:
Introduction: Non-invasive, quick diagnosis of cancer and their safe, effective individualized treatment will be presented. Methods:We use a simple, non-invasive method of diagnosis, the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT) which received a U.S. patent in 1993. We analyze completed Mouth, Hand, and Footwriting Form, detecting most malignancies at any part of the body even before standard laboratory tests can detect any abnormalities. For treatment, we used an average adult optimal dose of 400 I.U. Vitamin D3 as essential 1st treatment before using any other treatment. Our latest discovery is diagnosis of cancer from the QRS complex of an ECG. Results: We treated over 100 patients, most of them who had a significant reduction of cancer parameters, including Oncogen C-fos Ab2, Integrin α5β1, and 8-OH-dG (which is proportional to DNA mutations). If Integrinα5β1 is less than 100 ng, standard laboratory tests often cannot detect a malignancy. The most optimal, effective dose was individually determined by using BDORT. Optimal dose of Vitamin D3 often increased extremely low Acetylcholine and DHEA levels all over the body. Cancer activity & associated symptoms very significantly reduced without any side effects in more than 85% of patients. Discussion: In the remaining 15% of patients we found that what patients were eating, drinking, and wearing affected their treatment. Since most patients made significant improvements, before using any other cancer treatment, we recommended to see the result of initial treatment. We found the optimal dose also depends on the degree of patients' physical activity, while standard methods of estimating dose requirements are proportional to body weight.

Keynote Forum

Jens Hoffmann
EPO Experimental Pharmacology & Oncology, Germany
keynote: Personalized oncology research using patient derived cell cultures and xenograft (PDX) models
Biography:
Dr Hoffmann is the CEO of EPO, a CRO that provides comprehensive services for preclinical oncology research. He has specialized in preclinical and translational research and is developing personalized models to support the selection of the most appropriate drug treatment for individual patients. From 1997 to 2009 he worked as group leader in Oncology Research at Schering and Bayer. Dr. Hoffmann is member of the German Cancer Foundation and the Board of the Experimental Cancer Research Division (AEK) and the AACR. He is member of the CONELIS expert network and of the board of CPO Cellular Phenomics and Oncology

Abstract:
The molecular heterogeneity of cancer calls for individualized therapies to become the standard of care. It is now generally accepted that target-specific compounds require specific new development programs. But, even for new drugs with general mode of action (i.e. chemotherapy), tailored treatment approaches, such as specific schedules or combinations, have been shown to improve the therapeutic outcome. Therefore, the preclinical development of new therapeutic agents needs, next to the “classical pharmacodynamic studies”, the implementation of integrative translational research as early as possible. New translational research approaches will allow to define the optimal patient population for clinical development, to tailor individual treatment of the tumor disease and to choose a rational basis among the manifold options for treatment combinations. I will discuss several examples from translational research studies, which have originally been started to evaluate the molecular mode of action and to recognize mechanisms that could lead to resistance. These studies were extended later to identify predictive response biomarkers and a rationale for combination with different therapies. For direct patient benefit we have established technologies for the generation of three-dimensional tumor (PD3D) and xenograft (PDX) cultures which closely resemble their donor tumors. These tumor cultures are not just a promising tool for the identification of ineffective drugs, yet they even provide a feasible rationale for patient-specific compound combinations. The presentation will discuss pros and cons, successes and failures of our integrative personalized research program and provide recommendations for future oncology projects.

Keynote Forum

Karl-Anton Kreuzer
University at Cologne, Germany
keynote: Personalized therapy of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): Challenges of initial and follow-up diagnostics
Biography:
Prof. Dr. Karl-Anton Kreuzer attended the medical schools at the University of Bonn/Germany, the Technical University Munich/Germany, the University of Pittsburgh/USA and the University of Zurich/Switzerland. He completed his scientific education through scientific trainings at the Wistar Institute, Philadelphia/USA, and the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot/Israel. He spent his residency at the Department of Hematology/Oncology at the Virchow-Klinikum of the Charité in Berlin/Germany. Since 2004 Dr. Kreuzer is affiliated to the Department I of Internal Medicine (Head: Prof. Dr. Michael Hallek) where he received his venia legendi in 2006 on “Molecular diagnostics in hematology”. At this clinic he heads the routine diagnostic laboratory where a broad panel of hematological methods (cytomorphology, flow cytometry, molecular genetics, cytogenetics) is performed. This lab acts also a central diagnostics facility for various international multicenter trials for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Dr. Kreuzer is member of various national and international societies on the field of hematology and oncology. Further he is a referee for domestic and foreign research funds as well as a reviewer and editorial board member of several scientific journals. He is associated editor of Leukemia Research and editor-in-chief of the European Journal of Heamatology. Dr. Kreuzer is co-author of standard text books in internal medicine.

Abstract:
Very recently, three innovative compounds have been approved for the targeted therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL): obinutuzumab, ibrutinib and idelalisib. While the advent of new treatment options for CLL is highly desired, it remains challenging to identify the optimal patient population for each of these drugs and any other combination. Besides patient-related factors such as age and biological fitness, the importance of disease-specific characteristics such as mutations of TP53, NOTCH1, SF3B1 or cytogenetics is steadily increasing. Moreover, it could be shown that remission depth by assessing minimal residual disease (MRD) is prognostically highly relevant and may guide sequential treatments. Finally, there is growing evidence that evolution of therapeutically resistant clones, harboring e.g. BTK or PLC-gamma mutations, may occur and have a direct impact on prognosis and therapy. In this presentation current state-of-the-art diagnostics of initial CLL, individual risk assessment and disease monitoring in the light of new therapeutic options will be demonstrated.

Keynote Forum

Mathew L. Thakur
Thomas Jefferson University, USA
keynote: Genomic approach to PET imaging of prostate cancer: from mouse to man.
Biography:
Dr. Thakur is a highly respected, renowned investigator, nationally and internationally, for his pioneering research, scholarly activities, and leadership. He has published 219 peer reviewed original articles in prestigious journals, 4 books, 51 chapters and several editorials, and has given 258 invited presentations both nationally and internationally, in addition to 176 presentations at Universities and commercial organizations throughout the world. He has 20 granted or pending patents in the development of radiopharmaceuticals and molecular imaging. He has received nine highly prestigious national and international awards, a testimony to recognition by his peers of his outstanding contributions.

Abstract:
The need is compelling for early and accurate diagnosis of prostate cancer (PC), non-invasively. The goal is to PET image PC using 64Cu-TP3805, specific for VPAC1 receptors, expressed in high density on PC cells, but not on normal cells. 64Cu-TP3805 has (i) high affinity for VPAC1 (Kd = 3.1x10-9M), (ii) excellent stability in-vivo, and (iii) ability to image spontaneously grown PC in transgenic (TRAMP) mice that mimic pathophysiology of human PC. Patients (n=25) scheduled for radical prostatectomy, who signed consent form, were PET imaged preoperatively. The images were compared to pathologic analysis of whole mount, excised prostate. De-paraffinized whole mount pathology slides (n=68) from 6 VPAC1 PET imaged patients, 3 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients (n=9), one malignant lymph node (LN, n=3), and one benign LN (n=3) were incubated with Cu-64-TP3805, washed, and subjected to digital autoradiography (DAR). Slides were then H&E stained, read microscopically and marked as PC, benign, cyst, or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and compared with DAR images. DAR identified 105/107 (98%) histologically known PC foci, 9 previously unknown PC foci, 18 high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HIGPIN), 2/2 ejaculatory duct, and 5/5 urethra verumontanum, but missed 2/107 (1.8%) PC foci due to artifact. DAR was positive for positive LN and negative for benign LN, for three BPH patients, and for 5/5 cysts. Detection of HIGPIN was consistent with early expression of VPAC1. With excellent PPV (98%) and NPV(100%), Cu-64-TP3805 is worthy of imaging PC.

Keynote Forum

Wolfgang Uckert
Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany
keynote: Targeting cancer by T cell receptor gene therapy
Biography:
Wolfgang Uckert completed his Ph.D. from the Central Institute of Cancer Research in Berlin, Germany and postdoctoral studiesfrom Free University of Brussels, Belgium; USC Medical School Los Angeles, USA and Veterinary University of Vienna, Austria. He is the Head of the Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Gene Therapy at the Humboldt University / Max-Delbrück-Center of Molecular Medicine and the President of the German Society of Gene Therapy. He haspublishedmorethan 100 papers in peerreviewedscientificjournals.

Abstract:
Over the past, the genetic introduction of T cell receptor (TCR) genes into T cells has been developed as a strategy to provide defined antigen-specific T cell immunity. The potential value of this strategy - designated as TCR gene therapy - was established in mouse models and first clinical trials. However, most studies were of limited efficacy, accompanied by side effects and revealed (i) the importance to select tumor-specific antigens as targets and (ii) the need to improve the methodology for TCR gene therapy. To achieve these goals, we developed (i) retroviral and non-viral vector systems allowing an efficient TCR gene transfer into human T cells, (ii) an RNA interference (RNAi)-TCR replacement vector that simultaneously silences the endogenous TCR and expresses an RNAi-resistant, therapeutic TCR. Using this vector in a mouse model of TCR gene therapy, lethal TCR gene transfer-induced autoimmunity caused by formation of mixed TCR dimer was completely avoided, (iii)a safety modul by introduction of a tag-sequence into the TCR alpha-chain gene that is recognized by a depleting antibody and allows the termination of TCR gene therapy in case of severe side effects, and (iv) a preclinical model to evaluate the therapeutic efficiency and safety of TCR gene therapy for established cancer. We generated immune-deficient, human MHC-transgenic mice and a syngeneic tumor cell line that can be modified to express human tumor antigens of interest. This model allows a prediction of the therapeutic efficacy of TCRs and antigens, which are selected for TCR gene therapy. All these methods were established to achieve a safe and efficient clinical application of TCR gene therapy.

Diagnosis and therapy
Session Chair:
Anil Suri
National Institute of Immunology, India


Session Introduction

Daqing Ma
Imperial College London, UK
Title: Potential impact of anaesthetics on cancer cell biology
Biography:
Dr. Daqing Ma is Macintosh Professor and Head of Anaesthesia Research of the Section of Anaesthetics, Pain Medicine & Intensive Care, Department of Surgery & Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, and Chelsea and Westminster Hospita, London, UKl. He has more than 160 publications (H index 32 and > 4,000 citations) of original articles being published in the English peer reviewed journals (e.g. PNAS, Annals of Neurology, Annals of Surgery, BMJ, JASN, Kidney International, The FASEB Journal, Critical Care Medicine, Anesthesiology and etc.) covering research fields of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology, Neuroscience, Neurology and Nephrology. He is a Fellow elect of Royal College of Anaesthetists (UK). He is a Board Member of British Journal of Anaesthesia and a council member of Anaesthetic Research Society (UK). He is an Academic Editor of PLoS One and an Associate Editor of Journal Alzheimer Disease and editorial board member of other 5 journals.

Abstract:
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. In particular, solid organ tumours derived from breast, lung, colorectal, prostate and gynaecological tissues account for a major proportion of the patient mortality. Despite the increasing efficacy of chemotherapy and the enormous investment into developing targeted pharmacological therapies to treat cancer over recent decades, surgical resection remains the most popular first-line treatment option for most patients with solid tumours, offering the best chance of cure. It has long been recognised that surgery itself has a direct impact upon tumour biology, with reports focussing principally on how the surgical stress response associated immunosuppression may increase the risk of post-operative metastatic spread. However, the impact of anaesthetics/techniques on post-operative cancer outcome has been largely neglected. Our novel preliminary findings indicate that anaesthetics do exert a strong effect on cancer cell biology. These cumulative data also suggest that some anaesthetics may do a favourable job for cancer patients but some do not. This lecture will cover the impact of anaesthetics on cancer growth and metastasis and provide novel insight into molecular mechanisms. The importance is that this area of research will likely change clinical practice of anaeesthesia and in vivo cancer research.

Hiroaki Ito
Showa University Koto Toyosu Hospital, Japan
Title: Novel methodology for ultra-early cancer diagnosis by a biochip with silver nanoscale hexagonal columns
Biography:
Hiroaki Ito has completed his M.D. at the age of 25 years from School of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, and has completed his Ph.D from Niigata University. He is a Board Certified Surgeon in Gastroenterology of the Japanese Society of Gastroenterological Surgery, and Board Certified Gastroenterologist of the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology. He is Assistant Professor of Digestive Surgery, Digestive Disease Center, Showa University Koto Toyosu Hospital, a premier medical service organization. He has published more than 35 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.

Abstract:
To improve the survival of patients with cancer, early diagnosis is one of the important factors. Blood tests are widely used because of their minimal invasiveness. Tumor markers, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and cancer-related nucleic acids are mainly used for cancer diagnosis. Although tumor markers have been implemented in practice, their sensitivity is generally low. However, CTCs analysis is widely used, its usefulness for early diagnosis of cancer is controversial. Cell-free nucleic acids (cfNAs) including cell-free DNA (cfDNA), mRNA, and microRNA (miRNA) are presently used as important biomarkers of cancer. We have developed a biochip with silver nanoscale hexagonal columns to detect methylated cfDNA by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The intensity of the SERS spectrum of clinical serum samples from gastric and colorectal cancer patients is significantly higher than that of clinical serum from non-cancer patients. We believe that our novel methodology could be a high-sensitive blood tests for ultra-early cancer diagnosis.

Mathew L. Thakur
Thomas Jefferson University, USA
Title: Investigation into a novel, but simple, non-invasive approach for detection of genitourinary cancer.
Biography:
Dr. Thakur is a highly respected, renowned investigator, nationally and internationally, for his pioneering research, scholarly activities, and leadership. He has published 219 peer reviewed original articles in prestigious journals, 4 books, 51 chapters and several editorials, and has given 258 invited presentations both nationally and internationally, in addition to 176 presentations at Universities and commercial organizations throughout the world. He has 20 granted or pending patents in the development of radiopharmaceuticals and molecular imaging. He has received nine highly prestigious national and international awards, a testimony to recognition by his peers of his outstanding contributions.

Abstract:
Cancer remains one of the most formidable diseases of mankind. Genitourinary cancers, such as those involving prostate (CaP) and bladder urothelium, are common malignancies. However, their non-invasive diagnosis remains challenging. Our investigation pertains to the use of voided urine, in which we selectively identify shed cancerous cells (SCC) by targeting a specific genomic biomarker to distinguish them from normal epithelial cells optically. Urine samples (n=203) were collected from normal volunteers (n=53, M=22, F=31) and from patients with CaP (n=76), BUC (n=35, M=25, F=10), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (n=4), and with other non-oncologic complaints (n=35, M=14, F=21). The protocol was IRB exempt as no health record was required to be collected. 74/76 CaP patients had SCC (97.4%), one was negative for SCC (1.3%), and one was unclear. For BUC, 33/35 (94.3%) had SCC, one was negative (2.8%), and one was technically unclear (2.8%). None of the 4 BPH had SCC (100%). In 53 normals, 11 had SCC (20.7%), 32 were negative (60.4%), and 10 were unclear (18.8%). In miscellaneous 35 subjects, 19 (54.3%) had SCC, 13 (37.1%) were normal, and 3 (8.6%) had technically poor quality. The method is simple, noninvasive, rapid, and detects SCC with a high sensitivity in voided urine of patients with CaP and BUC. Support: NIH CA157372-02 and NuView Inc. (MLT)

Manju Ray
Bose Institute, India
Title: Methylglyoxal—journey from of a putative glycolytic intermediate to an effective nontoxic drug for cancer therapy
Biography:
Manju Ray is an Emeritus Scientist at Bose Institute, India, Formerly Senior Prof , Dean and Director (Acting), IACS She worked for 8 Years as Head in Biological Chemistry, Dean and Director (IACS), In a nutshell, for the past 40 years, Dr. Manju Ray has focused her research interest in investigated a fundamental aspect of one of the most important problems of biomedical science namely understanding the basis of malignancy. Her research findings has been crucial in pinpointing a) the etiology of cancer b) identifying some potential tumor biomarkers and c) developing a methylglyoxal based nontoxic anticancer drug which can act specifically against malignant cells. Presently this drug is undergoing Phase II/III clinical trial in Tata Memorial Cancer centre , Mumbai. These contributions will surely have long lasting impact for the benefit of mankind and will be a beacon of hope for cancer patients throughout the world.

Abstract:
Methylglyoxal research is a small field in biochemistry but with vast medical potential. It had a long and checkered history. Methylglyoxal, a keto-aldehyde, has been known for nearly a century when in 1913 an enzyme was identified in animal tissue which could convert methylglyoxal to D-lactic acid. In early 1920 methylglyoxal was assumed to be a key intermediate of glucose breakdown, an idea subsequently rejected in the 1930s as the glycolytic pathway was elucidated. Revival of interest in methylglyoxal occurred in 1960s when Szent-Györgyi championed the idea that methylglyoxal might have a role in regulating cellular growth and thus it might act as an anticancer agent. Soon thereafter, works mostly from our laboratory, elucidated in details the pathway of methylglyoxal metabolism in mammalian system. The enzymes participating in these pathways had been isolated, purified and characterized. Szent-Györgyi and his collaborators provided strong theoretical arguments and experimental evidences in support of the anticancer effect of methylglyoxal, and further studies, in our laboratory, found it to be a potent tumericidal agent inhibited the respiration of EAC cells, a wide variety of human post-operative malignant tissues and also that of leukemic leukocytes while the normal cells remained unaffected. It was later demonstrated that it acts exclusively against mitochondrial complex I and GAPDH of tumor cells. This blocks glycolysis and cellular respiration leading to depletion of ATP and rendering the tumor cells non-viable. With the primary objective to treat cancer patients by methylglyoxal its toxicity was assessed at first by administering through three different routes to four different species of animals. Methylglyoxal was also found to be effective in vivo. Having found that methylglyoxal is non-toxic and hence potentially safe for human consumption a methylglyoxal-based anticancer formulation was administered orally to diverse groups of cancer patients with the due permission from regulatory authorities. The patients were divided in three study groups. In first group (14 months, January 2000-February 2001) 24 terminally ill patients were recruited and complete remission was observed for 11 patients and partial remission for 5 patients. In the second group (60 months, October 2000-September 2005) 46 patients were recruited and complete remission was observed for 18 patients and partial remission for another 18 patients. In the third group (42 months, May 2005-October 2008) of the 23 patients complete remission was observed for 11 patients and partial remission for 7 patients. The treatment was found to be especially effective for adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder, breast, uterus, esophageal and gastrointestinal tract cancer. Several vital biochemical, radiological and other parameters were tested in patients who received treatment for a long time to assess the possible long term toxicity of methylglyoxal treatment, if any, and the results implicated no toxicity as per the parameter studied. After the promising outcome of the Phase I clinical trial, at present, the formulation is undergoing Phase II/III clinical trial in Tata Memorial Cancer Centre, Mumbai which is one of the primer cancer hospitals in India.

Manuela Stoicescu
University of Oradea, Romania
Title: An unusual risk factor in the breast cancer original case report
Biography:
Dr. Manuela Stoicescu, Consultant Internal Medicine Doctor (PhD in Internal Medicine) now is Assistant Professor of Medical Disciplines Department, University of Oradea, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania, Internal Medicine Hospital and Office. She is Member of Romanian Society of Internal Medicine, Member of Romanian Society of Cardiology, Chemistry, Biochemistry and Member of Balcanic Society of Medicine. She was invited as a speaker at 24 International Conferences, she is editorial board member in three ISSN prestigious Journal in U.S.A, she published 12 articles in prestigious ISSN Journals in U.S.A. she published four books: two books for the students in English and Romanian language:” Clinical cases for students of the Faculty of Medicine”, one book in English language on Amazon at International Editor – Lambert Publishing Academic House in Germany- “Side Effects of Antiviral Hepatitis Treatment”, one monograph in Romanian language” High blood pressure in the young an ignored problem!”, two chapter books – Cardiovascular disease: Causes, Risks, Management CVD1- Causes of Cardiovascular Disease 1.5,1.6, U.S.A on Amazon.

Abstract:
Present the clinical case of a women patient 45 years old who came at the Emergency Service, very scare, because with a few hours ago appear a bite tick of the breast very painful like burn sensation, when she worked in the garden. At the objective examination the tick was with the head and legs very deep inside in the breast, with a very unusual color cyanosis and purple spots on the skin and tissue around the bite tick of the breast. Except these changes, all the objective examination was normal. The ultrasonography of the breast was normal without nodular formations inside of the breast at the moment of the examination and without lymph nodes in the axilla. The laboratory blood tests were in normal range in the emergency, except late the ELISA specific test for Borellia - Western Blot and DFM (WB positive on IgG and on IgM, DFM was showed borrelia burgdorferi). The principal therapeutic attitude of the patient was the elimination of the tick, local toilette of the lesion and of course antibiotic therapy (Doxicilina1g at six hours/day three weeks.) with a very good evolution of the patient and appeared of a scar on the skin lesion. But after six months of this event the patient revue because in the same place of the breast, where was the bite tick, appeared a small nodule 1cm diameter, confirmed at mammography and ultrasonography of the breast. In the first instance the patient refused biopsy of the breast and the surgical intervention but agrees to follow the nodule evolution. After three months when revue at control the nodule increase fast in dimensions with 1,5cm, so was 2,5cm, confirmed clinic, after mammography and ultrasonography of the breast. The patient refused biopsy again but accepted surgical intervention. After this was performed histopathology examination confirmed the diagnosis adenocarcinoma of the breast. The patient follows complete standard protocol of therapy with irradiation and chemotherapy with good evolution. Results and discussions: This clinical case is atypical because relieved an unusual possible risk factor in the development of the breast cancer like bite tick. It is possible that after this unhappy event, the tick to eliminate toxic substances very dangerous and after that to appear changes in the tissue morphology of the breast and inside of the cells with potential carcinogenic risk. Conclusions: Consider that the people must to be informed and attention about this dangerous situation to prevent in the future similar events. The most important idea of this clinical case presentation is that the bite tick is possible to eliminate carcinogenic substance incriminate in the development of cancer.

Mine Yarim
Yeditepe University, Turkey
Title: Anticancer activity studies on some benzothiazole-piperazine derivatives
Biography:
Professor Yarim has completed his Ph.D from Hacettepe University and postdoctoral studies from ETH-Zürich. Professor Yarim has studied anticancer drug design and she has authored several peer-reviewed reports. She has served on numerous review committees for the National Science Foundation in Turkey. She has served on the editorial boards for the Pharmacologia. She is a member of the QSAR Society.

Abstract:
Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxic activities of some new benzothiazole-piperazine derivatives were reported. In vitro cytotoxic activities of compounds were screened against hepatocellular (HUH-7), breast (MCF-7) and colorectal (HCT-116) cancer cell lines by sulphorhodamine B assay. Based on the GI50 values of the compounds, most of the benzothiazole-piperazine derivatives are active against HUH-7, MCF-7 and HCT-116 cancer cell lines. Aroyl substituted compounds 1h (N-(4-methyl-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)-2-(4-benzoylpiperazin-1-yl)acetamide) and 1j (N-(4-methyl-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)-2-[4-(2-furoyl)piperazin-1-yl]acetamide) were found to be the most active derivatives. In addition, further investigation of compounds 1h and 1j by Hoechst staining and FACS revealed that these compounds cause apoptosis by cell cycle arrest at subG1 phase.

Anil Suri
National Institute of Immunology, India
Title: A bridge from bench-to-bedside: Development of cancer therapy
Biography:
Dr. Anil Suri is very well recognized and eminent scientist in the field of Cancer biology working at National institute of Immunology. Dr Suri is a Fellow of National Academy of Medical Sciences (India) and a Fellow of National Academy Sciences. Dr Suri has been a visiting Professor in Mount Siani Medical Cancer Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, National Cancer Institute, Georgetown University, Lombardi Cancer Center, Washington. His outstanding cancer research has resulted in discovery of unique molecules which are important for early detection and diagnosis and can be implicated as immunotherapeutic targets. His ongoing translational research programs with national and international collaborators including All Indian Institute of Medical Sciences (New Delhi, India), Adyar Cancer Institute (Chennai, India), Queen’s University (Belfast, UK) and Georgetown University (Washington, USA) are aimed at conducting multi-faceted research to yield novel biomarkers and therapeutic modalities. Dr Suri has been conferred with Citation Award for 6th Professor RabindraNathChakravarti Memorial Oration citation award Lecture for the year August 11, 2014-2015 at Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research Chandigarh. Dr Suri was also conferred with , Labhsetwar Award 2011, Ramaswami Memorial Oration Award 2013 and Dr T.C. Anand Kumar award 2015 for his research contribution in Reproductive tract cancers. Recently, his contribution in breast cancer has been the most cited work from India.

Abstract:
Women's reproductive health is challenged by several problems, such as unwanted pregnancies, communicable diseases and gynaecological malignancies. Cervical cancer is one of the world’s deadliest forms of cancer in women, responsible for more than 2.5 million deaths annually, 85% of which occur in developing countries (WHO report, 2014). Cervical cancer is one of the major concerns especially in developing countries like India because of lack of proper medical infrastructure and limited awareness associated with low socio-economic status. As part of the comprehensive approach to improve the women's reproductive health, cervical cancer effective therapy is of utmost importance. Our aim is to advance in cancer medical research and improve patient outcomes by discovering novel biomarkers (for early detection and diagnosis, prediction, and prognosis) and immunotherapeutic targets for reproductive tract cancer. In this context, past one decade we have extensively worked on a tumour associated antigen designated as Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) and shown its association with reproductive tract malignancies and various other cancers. On the basis of SPAG9 expression profile and immunogenic nature, recombinant SPAG9 protein will be used in Phase II clinical trial study: “Cancer immunotherapy dendritic cell vaccine based immunotherapy in cervical cancer-A phase II, double blind, randomized, three arm study to evaluate the efficacy of dendritic cell vaccine in stage IIB cervical cancer (n=54 patients)” to improve the women's reproductive health. "Our work would thus help in improving overall public health and economic benefit across countries. Our findings have opened up new avenues for novel treatment modalities in battling with this deadly disease worldwide for treating cervical cancer patients for better Reproductive Health". If successful, this will be the first molecule identified from India and will be an example of Translational Medicine Research of clinical relevance for "global reproductive health for all".

Sadanori Takeo
National Hospital Organization Kyushu Medical Center, Japan
Title: Utility of carotid ultrasonography in the prevention of postoperative cerebral infarction in patients with lung cancer
Biography:
Born in Fukuoka, Japan, Dr. Takeo received his PhD in Immunological Sciences from Kyushu University, Japan. He is Chairman of the Department of Thoracic Surgery and Director General of the Clinical Department of the National Hospital Organization Kyushu Medical Center. He has published over 40 articles in the fields of lung cancer and mediastinal tumors. He was among the pioneers in thoracic and VATS surgery. He and his team were the first to report “Original Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Extended Thymectomy for Thymoma”.

Abstract:
Objective: To identify lung cancer patients at risk of cerebral infarction and examine whether ultrasonography of the internal carotid artery (ICA) aids in its prevention. Method: The study population consisted of 1232 consecutive lung cancer patients who underwent surgical resections at Kyushu Medical Center between 1984 and 2000 (group 1, n=334) and 2001 and 2012 (group 2, n=898). Group 2 patients underwent ICA ultrasonography; group 1 patients did not. Patients with moderate–severe stenosis of the carotid artery received a prophylactic infusion of heparin. Results: Postoperative cerebral infarction occurred in four patients (1.2%) in group 1 but in only one patient (0.1%) in group 2. None of these patients had a preoperative history of cerebrovascular episodes. In group 2, linear ICA analysis showed 54 (6.0%) patients with mild, 57 (6.3%) patients with moderate and 14 patients (1.6%) with severe stenosis. Among those with severe stenosis, only one had a preoperative cerebrovascular episode. The incidence of postoperative cardiocerebrovascular comorbidity was 7.1% in group 1 and 2.1% in group 2. Postoperative cerebral infarction and cardiovascular complications were significantly lower in group 2 (p=0.008 and p=0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Ultrasonography is a non-invasive method to preoperatively assess the risk of cerebral infarction in lung cancer patients. Even in patients without a history of cerebral infarction, the risk of ICA stenosis increases with age. Candidates for preoperative ultrasonography are > 50 years of age, male and have a history of hypertension, preoperative comorbidities, cerebral infarction, heart disease, atherosclerotic obliterans, and/or smoking.

Shou-Ching Tang
Georgia Regents University, USA
Title: Breast cancer therapy in 2015: Precision Cancer Treatment, fiction or reality
Biography:
Dr. Shou-Ching Tang, MD, PhD, FACP, FRCPC, is currently the Professor and Leader of Breast Cancer Multidisciplinary Program at the Georgia Regents University Cancer Center. He recently served as the Adjunct Professor at the University of Minnesota and as Martha Macon Stimpson Endowed Chair in Medical Oncology at the Virginia Piper Cancer Institute, Director of Clinical Research with the Allina Health System Breast Cancer Program and Scientific Advisor for the US Oncology Research and Breast Research Committee. He was the former Professor and Chief of Hematology/Oncology at the Denver Health Medical Center, University of Colorado, Professor of Medicine and Director of Breast Cancer Program at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine in Scottsdale, Arizona and as Director of Solid Tumor Oncology, Associate Cancer Center Director for Clinical Research at the University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center. He is certified in Internal Medicine and Medical Oncology by both the American Board of Internal Medicine and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada

Abstract:
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women worldwide. There has been a real drop in breast cancer death rate recently due to early detection and better therapy. Most importantly, the advances in molecular biology in breast cancer has resulted in better understanding of the pathogenesis of breast cancer, leading to new approaches in the classification, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of early as well as late stages of breast cancer.This has resulted significant decrease in relapse and death in early and late stages of breast cancer respectively. The new technology of whole genome sequencing has now enabled researchers and clinicians to identify actionable genomic mutations in breast cancer and offer patients specific targeted therapy. The discovery of novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers has revolutionized the design and conduct of clinical trials in breast cancer, resulting in rapid clinical development and approval of new drugs. While advanced breast cancer is still incurable, the goal to cure more early stage breast cancer and to convert late stage breast cancer to chronic disease is now within the reach. This review will summarize the recent development of molecular dianosis, prognosis and treatment options in breast cancer. In addition, future direction of breast cancer research and therapy will be addressed.

Daryoush Fatehi
Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Iran
Title: Cancer thermal therapy: An effective approach
Biography:
Dr. Daryoush Fatehi (Ph.D. in Medical Physics) is now Associate Professor and head of the department of Medical Physics at Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran. He is member of Iranian Society of Medical Physics and member of European Society of Hyperthermic Oncology. He published more than 20 articles in prestigious ISSN Journals and three books for the students in Persian language. He was born in 1965 in Boroujen, Iran. He completed his Ph.D. in Erasmus University of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, in November 2007. His field of interest is in hyperthermia and cancer treatment.

Abstract:
The purpose of this review paper is to provide an overview on the application of hyperthermia (HT) [the controlled increased of the tumor temperature by 3-8°C] combined with conventional cancer treatment modalities. HT is applied with different methods e.g. superficial-HT, locoregional deep-HT, interstitial-HT, intracavity-HT, and whole body-HT. Studies show the addition of HT to radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or both, will result better tumor response rate, local control, palliative effects and survival rate, without increasing toxicity, in different tumor sites such as breast cancer, melanoma, head and neck, cervix cancer and glioblastoma. In the recent years, due to the huge technical progresses made in achieving selected increase of temperatures in superficial and deep-seated tumors, thermometry, and treatment planning, HT is becoming more accepted clinically. HT, as an adjunctive cancer treatment modality, is certainly a promising approach, however, it is not well known yet. Therefore, it seems there is need to know more about that.

The cancer cell and model systems
& Tumor Virology and Pathology
Session Chair:
Ivan Gout
University College London, UK


Session Introduction

Ivan Gout
University College London, UK
Title: Regulation of cell growth and metabolism via the mTOR/S6K pathway
Biography:
Dr. Gout has been working in the field of signal transduction in normal cells and its dysregulation in cancer for more than 20 years. Initially, he worked in Prof. M. Waterfield’s laboratory at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research on studying the function of PI3 kinases and targeting them for anti-cancer drug discovery (lead compounds are currently in clinical trials). At present, the main focus of his research is the study of basic mechanisms by which cell growth and metabolism are regulated in normal and cancer cells. There are two major areas of interest in the laboratory: a) regulation of cell growth, metabolism and proliferation via the mTOR/S6K pathway; b) the role of Coenzyme A and its derivatives in cellular metabolism and gene expression. The development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for cancer is the ultimate goal of my research, which is pursued through collaboration with academic and industrial partners. He has strong research (111 papers in peer-reviewed journals, H-Index 52) and patent (10 world-wide patents) portfolio and run two drug discovery programs aimed at developing small molecule inhibitors, targeting ribosomal S6 kinase and Aurora A kinase.

Abstract:
Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) belongs to the AGC family of protein kinases and is a key player in the mTOR and PI3K signalling pathways. Biochemical and genetic studies have implicated S6K in the regulation of cell size, growth and energy metabolism. Deregulation of S6K-coordinated signaling has been associated with various human pathologies, including cancer and diabetes. The family of S6Ks comprises of two members, S6K1 and S6K2, which have cytoplasmic and nuclear splicing isoforms.The activity and subcellular localization of S6Ks are regulated by multiple S/T phosphorylations in response to diverse extracellular stimuli. Furthermore, acetylation and ubiquitination have been implicated in regulating the stability of S6Ks. We have established a functional link between the mTOR/S6K pathways, CoA synthase and CoA biosynthesis. Data on molecular mechanisms underlying this regulatory event and its involvement in coordinating cellular processes will be presented.

Janet V. Cross
University of Virginia School of Medicine, USA
Title: Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF): A target for metastasis prevention through intervention in the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment
Biography:
Dr. Cross is an Associate Professor in the Department of Pathology at the University of Virginia School of Medicine, where she serves as director of the graduate program in the Molecular and Cellular Basis of Disease and a member of the executive committee of the Cancer Training Program. Her long--‐standing interest in cancer cell signaling has led to recent exploration of mechanisms by which tumor cells manipulate the immune response. She has authored reports in Biochemical Journal, PLOSOne, JBC and PNAS. Her recent work on the role of MIF in the tumor progression was published in Journal of Immunology.

Abstract:
The initiation, growth and metastasis of cancer are the result of a complex interplay between the tumor cells and the immune system. Efforts focused on enhancing the patient’s immune response against the tumor have met with some success in a subset of patients. However, a dominant immunosuppressive microenvironment within the tumor remains a barrier in many patients. Therefore, approaches to interfere with this immunosuppressive environment would be useful. We have identified the inflammatory cytokine, MIF, as a central mediator in establishment of this immunosuppressive microenvironment. MIF expression is frequently up regulated in cancer cells and higher MIF expression correlates with a more aggressive disease course and poorer patient outcomes. Using an animal model of spontaneously metastatic breast cancer, we demonstrated that MIF expression in the tumor cells is required for recruitment of immune suppressive cells into the tumor and this interaction is required for spontaneous pulmonary metastasis. In parallel work, we characterized the cancer chemopreventive agent, sulforaphane, as an inhibitor of MIF activity. Treatment of tumor bearing mice with sulforaphane disrupted the immunosuppressive microenvironment in a manner similar to MIF depletion. Ongoing efforts in the lab focus on understanding the mechanisms by which MIF enhances the immunosuppressive microenvironment and determining how these pathways contribute to metastasis. Our work demonstrating an essential role for MIF activity in metastasis suggests that MIF inhibition may be aviable approach for metastasis prevention. Moreover, we continue to explore whether our MIF inhibitor may enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy approaches by disrupting the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

Der-Jang LIAW
National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan
Title: Photoimage and photoluminescence of new functional polymers
Biography:
Professor Der-Jang LIAW, Polymer Science Doctor (Ph.D. Polymer), now he is a Chair professor of Chemical Engineering, NTUST. He got Master and Ph.D. degrees in polymer science of Osaka University (Japan). He has published about 360 SCI papers (h-index = 43 from ISI Web of Knowledge), 180 conference papers and 60 patents. In 2009, He was a recipient of the International Award from the Society of Polymer Science, Japan with Prof. J. M. J. Frechet (USA) and Prof. K. Muellen (Germany). He received Outstanding Polymer Academic Research Prize in 2012 and won a Lifetime Achievement Prize from Polymer Society of Taiwan in 2013. He has been a fellow of The Polymer Society of Taiwan since 2014. He has been Academician of the Russian Academy of Engineering since 2011. He is the Editorial Advisory Board of Polymer (UK), Polymer Journal (Japan), Polymer International (UK), Journal of Polymer Research (1994~2001), High Performance Polymers (UK) (NASA Editor-in-Chief), Materials (Switzerland) and Soft Nanoscience Letters (SNL). He is also the International Advisory Board of Polycondensation 2008, 2014 and 2016, IUPAC Macro2008 (Polymer Synthesis, Session Chairman), International Advisory Board of European Polymer Congress 2009 (Graz, Austria), International Advisory Committee of Pacific Polymer Federation (PPF), International Advisory Board of International Symposium on Olefin Metathesis (ISOM 19 [France], ISOM20 [Japan] and ISOM21 [Austria]), honorable guest of Nanotechnology 2015 (Dubai), Federation of Asian Polymer Societies Polymer Congress, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 2015 and Organizing Committee of Nanotechnology and Material Science, Nanotechnology-2016, Dubai, UAE. Currently, Prof. LIAW’s researches including the synthesis of conjugated polymers used for carrier transporting materials of solar cells, nanographenes, carbon nanotube wrapped by conjugated polymers, synthesis and characterization of high performance polymers such as polyimides and polyamides possess organo-solubility, thermal stability and optoelectronic properties. He studies on synthesis of all possible functional polymers via various polymerization techniques including free radical polymerization, ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), polycondensation, conjugated polymer or polymer reaction for the potential applications of optoelectonic devices, biomaterials, next-generation semiconductor materials and solar energy.

Abstract:
Advanced fluorescent polymers such as polyimides (PIs), polyamides (PAs), conjugated polymers and polynorbornenes (PNBs) were successfully synthesized through various polymerization methods such as low temperature polycondensation, Suzuki coupling and ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). These polymeric materials with various chromophores including triphenylamine, fluorene, pyrene, carbazole exhibited different color emission by excitation. PIs derived from different architecture designs revealed unique physical-mechanical, optoelectronic and chemical properties. The pyrene-containing PIs shows good thermal stability, high transparency of thin film and high photoluminescence quantum yield which can be applied for distinguishing fluorescence. PAs with the pyridine moiety displayed good film forming abilities, flexibility, high thermal resistance. In addition, the PAs exhibited monomer or excimer photoluminescence in visible light region while methanol and HCl were added to hinder the formation of hydrogen bonding, indicating the PAs with solvent responsiveness have great potential applications in sensors. Conjugated polymers were applied for single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) wrapping to separate metallic and semiconducting nanotubes. The semiconducting SWCNTs selectively dispersed by conjugated polymers possess near-infrared photoluminescence which can be used for nanoscale optical sensors. The triarylamine-fluorene based with pyrene moiety showed various emission bands depending on the polarity of organic solvents (i.e., solvatochromism). In addition, nanographene-containing conjugated polymer was prepared by Suzuki coupling and its dispersion solution was measured by photoluminescence-excitation (PLE) for nanographene optical applications. PNBs synthesized via ROMP showed excellent transparency at about 90 % and high thermal stability (Tgs > 160 oC). These polymeric materials had high organo-solubility in common solvents which can be fabricated into thin film devices and as a result can be used for sensors, fluorescent probes, photoimage applications.

Anchit Khanna
University of New South Wales, Australia
Title: Identification of CIP2A as a candidate therapeutic target in clinically challenging prostate cancer cell populations
Biography:
Dr Anchit Khanna, M.D.,PhD (Finland) is a NH&MRC Research Fellow at the Lowy Cancer Research Center, University of New South Wales (UNSW) Medicine, Sydney, Australia. His interest lies in identifying molecular mechanisms for cancer initiation and progression, especially with respect to the role of constitutive DNA-damage and genomic instability. His work has been published in the leading journals of the field like Cancer Research, Cancer Discovery and the Journal of National Cancer Institute. He has received several prestigious awards like the EACR-Young Cancer Researcher Award (Highly Commended), the AACR-GlaxosSmithKline Outstanding Clinical Scholar Award (2011) the Scientist of the Year Award, FUURT, Finland (2011) and the ComBio ECR (2014) award for his work. He has also been invited to write authoritative reviews for prominent cancer journals like Cancer Research and International Journal of Cancer on his work on Cancerous inhibitor of Protein Phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) and DNA-damage. Further, he has orally presented his work at several reputed international cancer conferences and is on the editorial board of several journals. Dr Khanna is very much interested in uncovering innovative ways to make clinical trials more effective and the various cancer therapies less toxic, safer and as cancer and patient-specific as possible.

Abstract:
Residual androgen receptor (AR)-signaling and presence of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are the two emerging paradigms for clinically challenging castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Therefore, identification of AR-target proteins that are also overexpressed in the CSC population would be an attractive therapeutic approach. Our analysis of over three hundred clinical samples and patient-derived prostate epithelial cultures (PPECs), revealed CIP2A as one such target. CIP2A is significantly overexpressed in prostate cancer patients, particularly in CRPC cases. CIP2A is also overexpressed, by 3- and 30-fold, in treatment naïve and CRPC prostate CSCs respectively. In vivo binding of the AR to the intronic region of CIP2A and its functionality in the AR-moderate and AR-high expressing LNCaP cell-model systems is also demonstrated. Further, we show that AR positively regulates CIP2A expression, both at the mRNA and protein level. Finally, CIP2A depletion reduced cell viability and colony forming efficiency of AR-independent PPECs as well as AR-responsive LNCaP cells, in which anchorage-independent growth is also impaired. These findings identify CIP2A (Cancerous Inhibitor of Protein phosphatase 2A) as a common denominator for AR-signaling and CSC functionality, highlighting its potential therapeutic significance in the most clinically challenging prostate pathology: castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).

Hilda Marima-Matarira
University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, Zimbabwe
Title: Primary hepatocellular carcinoma research in zimbabwe and co -infections with viral diseases
Biography:
National Representative on the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Secretary of African Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, President of Zimbabwe College of Pathology.ZACB and APECSA14 countries, Chemical Pathologist of National Health Laboratories, Harare and Parirenyatwa Hospitalsan University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences. Developed a new Department of Immunology in UZCHS. Developed the Zimbabwe External Quality Assurance Programme which later transformed into the Zimbabwe National Quality Assurance Programme where 138 Public and Private Clinical Laboratories are regularly monitored. Developed an MSc degree course in Clinical Biochemistry in UZCHS and BMLS degree course in Africa University, Mutare. 75 Publications in Referred Journals, Chapters in books and Handbooks in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine; mainly on Cancer Research, Liver Disease, Quality Assurance in Laboratory Medicine and Biochemical Reference Values. Supervised 32 students at MSc and Doctorate levels. External Examinerin College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya, Muhimbili College of Health Sciences, University of Da-es-Salam, Tanzania and Charles Sturt University, Australia, Presented over 80 Conference Papers Worldwide in 36 countries, From Japan, Australia; across all continents to Egypt, South Africa, United Kingdom and United States of America. Head of Department of Chemical Pathology UZCHS, Founding Dean of Studies, UZ Bulawayo College of Health Sciences, Executive Secretary Clinical Quality Assurance Board, Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals, Founding Vice-Chancellor and Professor of Great Zimbabwe University; Chief Editor of Journal of Biomedical Sciences and Public Health and Editorial board member on Journal of Thymology: Harzburg, Germany.

Abstract:
BACKGROUND Chronic liver disease is one of the leading causes of death globally with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) being the predominant common cause of cancer deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa. While viral hepatitis is 9th leading cause of death globally with Hepatitis B virus responsible for 45% of PHC deaths ,47% in Sub-Saharan Africa(SSA) and 30% of liver cirrhosis deaths versus 39% in SSA, alcohol contributing 25% of chronic liver disease deaths.PHC is the 6th most common cancer worldwide. Early diagnosis of liver disease provides hope to reverse the high mortality figures. In addition it is imperative to have knowledge of etiological factors in PHC, affordable sensitive non invasive biomarkers where biopsy investigations are limited. In these situations clinical diagnosis has a high false positive rate compounded by sampling errors in histological testing; making biochemical and molecular tests central in liver disease diagnosis and treatment. METHODS Seven cross sectional studies on PHC, HBV, HCV and HIV were conducted at Parirenyatwa and Harare Teaching Hospitals’ Liver disease and Opportunistic Infections Clinics (OIC) and National Blood Transfusion Services in Harare Zimbabwe., Donors were aged 18-55 years. Altogether 571 patients and 331 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the studies between 1998 and 2014. Routine Liver Function Tests and urea, creatinine and electrolytes were done using RA1000 Technicon. ALP and GGT isoenzymes were separated on PAGE in Bio-Rad Dual Slab Gel, scanned on densitometer. Alpha-fetoprotein was determined using RIA I125 kit. HBsAg was tested using Bioelisa Biokit, Anti HCV using MURE X kit from Abbott Diagnostics. Fibro Test combined Alpha- 2-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, Apo A-1, Total Bilirubin and Gamma glutamyl Transferase were measured on Beckman Coulter AU680 Chemistry analyser and diagnostic kits and calculated on website www.biopredictive.com . FBI4 index was calculated as follows :(age in years X AST IU/L X Platelets X 109 )/L/(ALT IU/L). HIV was determined by in routine serology departments for OIC.

Kiran C. Kothari
The Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute, India
Title: Laproscopic oesophagectomy (minimally invasive) for carcinoma lower and middle third oesophagus. Tertiary care experience in India
Biography:
Dr. Kiran Kothari is working at The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute, Ahmedabad since March 1, 1982 and presently working as Dy. Director of Surgical Oncology. He is Professor of Surgical Oncology, Unit Chief and In-charge, Minimal Invasive Department for the past 12 years. He has organized many conferences and workshops. He has published many papers and has made many presentations, guest lectures, orations in various national and international meetings. He has Passed PGDHHM (Post Graduate Diploma in Hospital and Health Management) examination with distinction offered by IGNOU, Nov. 2014.

Abstract:
BACKGROUND:Esophagectomy with lymphadenectomy remains the foremost option for the curative treatment of esophageal cancer with potential risk of lymph node metastasis. Esophagectomy is a complex operation with significant morbidity and mortality. Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) was described in the 1990s in an effort to reduce operative morbidity. MIE has become increasingly used and accepted, with reported outcomes comparable with those of open approaches. In patients with esophageal cancer, MIE provided a better operative field and reduce peri-operative complications. Compared with conventional open esophagectomy MIE is believed to reduce blood loss and shorten hospital stays. In a developing nation like India with limited resources we did MIE and in this paper I will present our experience in our institute and details about ,oncological outcome, hospital stay, blood loss , post operative recovery, respiratory complications. METHODS: The medical records of 110 consecutive patients, who underwent minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) between April 2004 upto March 2014 in GCRI Ahmedabad, wereprospectively reviewed. In the same period, 110 patients who underwent OE, either Ivor Lewis or McKeown approach, were selected randomly as controls. The clinical variables of paired groups were compared, including age, sex, tumor location, number of harvested lymph nodes, morbidity rate, the rate of leak, pulmonary morbidity rate, mortality rate, and length of stay in hospital(LOS). RESULTS:In the our study groups mean age group of 50.50 years for open and 53 years TL- Esophectomy. Malignancy were more common in male in both study groups.Mean blood loss were more in open surgery ( 401.22 ml in Open and 250.93 ml in TLE). Ambulation, starting of oral feed, ICD and abdominal drain removal was early in TLE. In our study days of hospital stay was 16.4 days for open and 7.76 for TLE respectively. The number of harvested lymph nodes was not significantly different between TLE group and OE group (with a median 16.2 in open and 13.4 in TLE). Overall morbidity, pulmonary morbidity, the rate of leak, in-hospital death, and hospital LOS were less in TLE than OE groups. CONCLUSIONS:Thoracoscopic and Thoraco-laparoscopic Esophegectomy offers several advantages over open esophegectomy like less blood loss, faster recovery, early feeding, lower morbidity rate, possible and preventing unintentional injury to surrounding vital structure due to a magnified view, together with oncological result like proximal , distal and circumferential resection margins, no of lymphnodes harvested.

Cancer Genetics, Health services research
& Cancer Biomarkers
Session Chair:
Rita Mulherkar
Tata Memorial Centre, India


Session Introduction

Veronica James
Australian National University, Australia
Title: Saving lives
Biography:
Veronica James BA, BSc, PhD moved from X-ray and Neutron crystallographic studies in 1980 wherein she had published 50 papers to fiber diffraction. In this field she has found the correct structure for mammalian hair which had defied all attempts over the previous 60 years. She has studied changes in the structures of membranes, hair, skin and nails associated with disease. 36 papers have been published in highly reputable journals from results obtained in this field as well as more than 50 papers delivered at conferences, medical groups, and universities. I hold international patents on the fingernail and skin tests.

Abstract:
Research over a number of years has resulted in fibre diffraction diagnostic tests that give an accuracy of 100% in diagnosing prostate cancer and breast cancer along with some other cancers and diseases. A 3mm punch biopsy, taken from the stomach, buttocks or upper arm, is used for such tests for prostate cancer, melanoma and stomach cancer. Hair or nails are used for breast, colon and adeno lung cancer tests. Mouse studies have verified that both prostate cancer and breast cancer are identified much earlier than by any other test. In the case of breast cancer, later studies have shown that some of the false positives (<1%) were in fact not false at all, just much earlier. The prostate cancer test correctly identifies the grades of prostate cancers present and accurately indicates the type of any invasion occurring. Most importantly both tests correctly identified the patients cured by treatment. Using such non-invasive tests at an early age should identify cancer at a very early stage. Further checks after treatment will verify total eradication and many lives should be saved

Ben C. Valdez
UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, USA
Title: Efficacy of nucleoside analogs, DNA alkylators and epigenetic modifiers in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Biography:
Dr. Ben C. Valdez obtained his PhD in Biochemistry from Louisiana State University. He did his post-doctoral training at Baylor College of Med in Houston, TX, and later hired as an assistant professor. He is now an associate professor in the Dept of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center. His research focuses on determining efficacious pre-transplant regimen for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. He has published more than 60 papers in peer-reviewed journals. He is a member of the editorial board member of three scientific journals.

Abstract:
DNA alkylating agents, such as busulfan and melphalan, are commonly used to treat hematopoietic malignancies. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), these drugs are used as a part of pre-transplant conditioning regimen. However, relapse after HSCT is a common problem. To enhance the efficacy of DNA alkylators in HSCT, we hypothesized that induction of chromatin remodeling with nucleoside analogs and epigenetic modifiers will facilitate DNA alkylation and crosslinking. These small molecules cause changes in chromatin structure and expose the genomic DNA, making it more accessible to DNA alkylators. Using nucleoside analogs (fludarabine, clofarabine and gemcitabine), histone deacytelase inhibitors (SAHA and romidepsin) and DNA demethylating agent (decitabine), we showed increased DNA crosslinking and cell death. The combination of these drugs showed synergistic cytotoxicity in myeloid and lymphoid malignant cell lines and cells derived from patients. These results correlated with the activation of DNA damage response and apoptosis pathway. Further analysis of their mechanisms of action shows complex interactions of the various pathways involved in death and survival. Based on our pre-clinical studies, we used these drug combinations in HSCT setting for patients with myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. Improvements in patient survival were observed when these drug combinations were used as part of pre-transplant regimen. Results from pre-clinical and clinical studies will be presented.

Rita Mulherkar
Tata Memorial Centre, India
Title: Cancer Gene Therapy: An Update
Biography:
Professor Rita Mulherkar, Scientific Officer 'H' (Retired), worked at the Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research & Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai. Her interests are in Genomics and Genetics of Cancer as well as Gene Therapy for Cancer. She is presently Chairperson, Institute Ethics Committee, ACTREC. She is on the Editorial Board of Human Gene Therapy, Journal of Biosciences and Journal of Biotechnology. She is Fellow of the National Academy of Sciences, India. She is past-President of Indian Society of Cell Biology and Indian Association for Cancer Research. She has published more than 60 peer-reviewed articles and contributed more than 6 chapters in books.

Abstract:
With major improvement in gene delivery vectors and our understanding of cancer biology, Gene Therapy is emerging once again as a promising therapy. Although Gene Therapy has been ignored to a great extent in India, our group was the first to carry out preclinical research in gene therapy for oral cancer. Initially retroviral vectors (LXSN) and later adenoviral vectors were used to deliver the gene for prodrug activation, Herpes simplex thymidine kinase (HSVtk). We also demonstrated that the HDACi - Valproic Acid, could not only increase the transgene expression and infectivity with adenovirus, but also increase bystander effect by increasing expression of connexins, thereby increasing cell kill using HSVtk as the transgene. This led to our writing a phase I clinical trial protocol for gene therapy for oral cancer. However, our efforts to procure clinical grade vector for the trial have failed so far. Today there are promising ongoing trials such as the one using oncolytic replicating retroviral vectors carrying prodrug activation gene Cytosine Deaminase, for brain tumours. The development of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapies against cancer has also reached important milestones recently. Inhibiting angiogenesis using anti-VEGF, in combination with prodrug activation therapy for brain tumours also has given promising results. Other anti-tumour mechanisms, such as reduction of infiltration by tumour-associated macrophages/microglia, may contribute to the improved therapeutic benefit of combination therapy. With groups proposing to initiate clinical studies using gene therapy for genetic disorders such as Haemophilia and Leber's Congenital Amaurosis, the future for gene therapy looks bright.

Alan Prem Kumar
National University of Singapore, Singapore
Title: Characterization of annexin a1 as a clinically useful biomarker of responsiveness
Biography:
Dr. Alan Prem Kumar earned his Ph.D. from University of North Texas, USA. From his Ph.D. work, he discovered a novel regulatory protein, PyrR for the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in Pseudomonas. Dr. Kumar then pursued Postdoctoral training in Cancer Research at Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, California, USA. He was awarded a Postdoctoral Fellowship for his work on the role of nuclear receptors. Dr. Kumar relocated back to Singapore to join Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore as an independent Principal Investigator. His current research interest includes the role of nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of target genes and to elucidate mechanism and associated signal pathways

Abstract:
The basal-like breast cancer subtype is predominantly estrogen receptor (ER)-, progesterone receptor (PR)-, and C-erb B2 receptor (HER2)-negative, aptly named triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC lacks defined targeted therapies, and have unique molecular profile, aggressive behavior, distinct patterns of metastasis and, thereby, a poor clinical outcome. Tumors which belong to the basal subtype have a more aggressive clinical behavior when compared to those with a luminal phenotype. Thus, identifying markers and therapeutic targets for TNBC is of pressing need. Our clinical data established basal and claudin-low subtypes of breast cancer (TNBC types) express significantly higher levels of Annexin A1 (ANXA1) with poor survival outcome. Using model cell lines of TNBC, we observed a positive correlation between expression of ANXA1 and nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG). A similar correlation was also seen in clinical tissues. To establish if these two markers are indeed linked in TNBC, we show that expression of ANXA1 is induced by PPARG activation both in vitro and in vivo and has a predictive clinical value in determining chemo-sensitivity to PPARG ligands. Mechanistically, we established PPARG-induced ANXA1 protein interacts directly with RIP-1 leading to deubiquitination of RIP-1 thereby activating the death pathway. Since to date there are no published reports on PPARG-ANXA1 axis in RIP-1 induced death machinery in cancer, our study therefore provides new preclinical with mechanistic insight for the suitability of using baseline expression ANXA1 as one inclusion criteria for patient selection in future PPARG chemotherapy trials

Olivier E. Pardo
Imperial College, UK
Title: FGF-2/S6K2 signalling promotes the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of hnRNPA1 to increase cap-independent translation of BCL-XL and XIAP in cancer
Biography:
Olivier E. Pardo completed his Biochemistry and his Pharmacy degrees from the University Paris V, France. He then joined Imperial College London, UK, where he obtained his PhD in 2002. The same year, he joined the laboratory of Prof. Julian Downward at the CRUK London Research Institute where he worked as a post-doctoral fellow for 5 years. He is now a team leader at Imperial College, where his laboratory investigates mechanisms of chemo-resistance and metastasis in lung cancer. He is a member of the LungTarget EU FP7 consortium and the London Lung Cancer Alliance.

Abstract:
Increase in cap-independent translation of antiapoptotic proteins, such as BCL-XL and XIAP, is involved in the development of drug resistance in cancer. We previously demonstrated the role of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2) signalling and S6 kinase 2 (S6K2) activity in this process, but, the downstream mediator(s) of this translational response remained unknown. Here, we show that S6K2 phosphorylates the RNA binding protein hnRNPA1 on Ser 4 and 6, increasing its association with BCL-XL and XIAP mRNAs internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) to promote their nuclear export while de-repressing their translation. A non-phosphorylatible S4/6A mutant prevented this and impaired the prosurvival activity of FGF-2/S6K2 signalling. In contrast, a phospho-mimetic mutant promoted BCL-XL and XIAP translation. Following transfer to the cytoplasm in complex with mRNAs, phospho-hnRNPA1 associates with 14-3-3sigma and theta to be sumoylated on K189 within a multi-protein complex involving the SUMO-conjugating enzyme, UBC9. This correlates with dissociation of hnRNPA1 from its target mRNAs to promote their translation and marks hnRNPA1 for re-import into the nucleus in a caryopherin-dependent manner. The expression levels of S6K2 in lung and breast tissue samples correlated with a mostly nuclear localization of hnRNPA1 and corresponding expression of BCL-XL and XIAP in these tumours. Hence, FGF-2/S6K2 signalling induces the nucleo-cytoplasmic cycling of hnRNPA1 to support tumour cell survival and immunostaining for the localization of the latter protein in tumour biopsies may inform patients stratification towards FGFR-targeted therapies.

Qiaoyi Liang
The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
Title: Establishment of probe-based qPCR assays and evaluation of bacterial markers for colorectal cancer
Biography:
Dr. Jessie Qiaoyi Liang has completed her Ph.D. at the age of 27 from Zhejiang University and is now a Research Assistant Professor in The Chinese University of Hong Kong. She has identified and designated three novel cancer-related genes and established one prenatal diagnosis method with granted patent. Her broad research interests include cancer genomics, metagenomics, human endogenous retrovirusesand functional studies on cancer-related genes. She has 20 peer-reviewed research articles (12 first or corresponding authorships). She received 6 research awards in recent five years. She is now principal investigator for six projects supported by national or municipal fundings, as well as beingco-investigator to 6 other projects

Abstract:
Background: With the widespread sequencing-based investigation of microbiota, disease-associated bacterial markers are emerging. There is an urgent need to develop a reliable qPCR platform for quantification of fecal bacterial markers to facilitate their application in non-invasive diagnosis. Methods:We designed a VIC-labeled probe-based internal control qPCR assay targeting 16S rDNAwith high coverage of the eubacterial population. We further established a duplex qPCR assay by incorporating a FAM-labeled primer-probe set targeting the colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated F. nucleatum. The abundance of F. nucleatum was examined in feces from 175 healthy subjects and 117 CRC patients. Results: The control assay could evaluate total bacteria with DNA<10ng/µLin final reactions; higher concentration showed inhibitory effect from the general impurities within fecal DNA. The duplex qPCR assay could quantifyF. nucleatumusing template>0.1 ng/µL to avoid false-negative assessment for samples low in F. nucleatum. The new qPCR assays were not affected by human DNA contamination thus could also be applied to mucosa samples. Using this platform, enrichment of F. nucleatum was confirmed inboth tumorous mucosa and feces from CRC patients. The value of fecal F. nucleatum as a non-invasive marker for CRCdiagnosis was also corroborated for the first time in Chinese population. Conclusions: This study establishedareliable probe-based 16S qPCR assayfor bacterial marker quantification, which was further refined in the detection of the CRC marker F. nucleatum in fecal samples. This studyallows easy and reliable evaluation of bacterial markers using duplex/multiplexqPCR in the future

Patrik Andersson
Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
Title: Tumor PDGF-BB as a biomarker for anti-PDGF therapy
Biography:
Patrik Andersson received his B.Sc. at the age of 21 within biomedical sciences and is now pursuing his Ph.D. studies on the topic of tumor lymph- and heme angiogenesis in promoting metastasis. He is receiving his training at the Karolinska Institutet, Sweden under the supervision of Professor Yihai Cao. He was invited as a speaker at the prestigious Gordon Conference in angiogenesis 2013, and he has obtained several research and travel grants. He has co-authored ten peer-reviewed articles either published or under current revision.

Abstract:
Anti-platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) drugs are routinely used in front-line therapy for the treatment of various cancers, but the molecular mechanism underlying their dose-dependent impact on vascular remodelling remains poorly understood. Here we show that anti-PDGF drugs significantly inhibit tumour growth and metastasis in high PDGF-BB-producing tumours by preventing pericyte loss and vascular permeability, whereas they promote tumour cell dissemination and metastasis in PDGF-BB-low-producing or PDGF-BB-negative tumours by ablating pericytes from tumour vessels. We show that this opposing effect is due to PDGF-β signalling in pericytes. Persistent exposure of pericytes to PDGF-BB markedly downregulates PDGF-β and inactivation of the PDGF-β signalling decreases integrin α1β1 levels, which impairs pericyte adhesion to extracellular matrix components in blood vessels. Our data suggest that tumour PDGF-BB levels may serve as a biomarker for selection of tumour-bearing hosts for anti-PDGF therapy and unsupervised use of anti-PDGF drugs could potentially promote tumour invasion and metastasis.

Iffat ElBarazi
United Arab Emirates University, UAE
Title: Cancer Education, the patient’s perspective
Biography:
Iffat Elbaraziis currently finishing a DrPH degree at Flinders University in Australia. She has a Master degree from Latrobe University in Australia in Health Education and Promotion. Sheis a Registered Nurse and has a Bachelor degree in Nursing from the American university of Beirut- Lebanon where she started her career in patient’s care. Iffat has over 20 years of experience in clinical and community cancer education and health promotion in Australia, Saudi Arabia and United ArabEmirates. Her current work in UAEU involves working on various public health research projects as well as academic teaching and community education. Her research interests include cancer education, women’s health, psychosocial and mental health, chronic diseases prevention and occupational health.

Abstract:
Patient education is one of the cornerstones of oncology patients’ care. All cancer patients should receive at least basic education about their condition;treatment plan and the management of long term and short term possible complications; and their diseaseprognosis for a successful management plan. However,a cancer patient’s knowledge and education needs might differ from one patient to another. Furthermore, patients’ educational needs and the level of knowledge required might change and vary depending on their physical condition, psycho-social status, personality type, psycho-social support provided to them and their cultural and religious background. A cancer patient’s knowledge about the condition, treatment and future prognosis, lifestyle changes and preventive measures passes through many transitional periods and changes over time and with personalexperiencethroughout the cancer journey. Knowledge and information might have different impact on patients’ psychological statusduring the cancer journey depending on the time and the way to be delivered. Therefore, how much information is enough? Should there be a limit on the information and knowledge that patients must receive? Should all information be given at once or over stages? This study tries to answer some of the above questions via a qualitative approach by exploring patients’ knowledge and education about their disease, their knowledge transition and their perceived education needs throughout their journey. A variety of cancer patients from different backgrounds and types of cancer were interviewed over three episodes during their cancer treatment journey in a tertiary hospital in United Arab Emirates.The key findingsof this longitudinal study reinforce the importance of having individually tailored cancer patient education plans based on patient’s education and knowledge needs.

Gulden Guvenc
Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Turkey
Title: Health beliefs and cervical cancer screening
Biography:
Dr. Gulten Guvenc received her Ph.D. from Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara Turkey in 2008. She studied as a visiting scholar at Texas Woman's University-Houston campus from August 2010 through August 2011. She is currently an Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at School of Nursing, Gulhane Military Medical Academy. Her research interests include early detection and prevention of gynecological cancers, breast cancer, assessing the health beliefs that influence health behaviors, violence against women, women’s health and nursing education. She has peer reviewed publications in reputed journals and has been serving as reviewer.

Abstract:
Many complex factors influence a woman’s decision about cervical cancer screening. Understanding the factors influencing women’s decisions to obtain cervical cancer screening will give guidance for the development of effective interventions with a reasonable chance of producing changes in health behaviour. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is one of the oldest and most widely used models in which theory has been adapted from the behavioural sciences to health problems, and it remains one of the most universally recognized conceptual frameworks of health behaviour. Bearing this in mind, the aim of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test. The data were collected with 237 randomly selected women who met the criteria for inclusion and agreed to participate in this study. The Champion Health Belief Model scales were translated into Turkish, adapted for cervical cancer, validated by professional experts, translated back into English and pilot-tested. Factor analysis yielded five factors: Pap smear benefits and health motivation, Pap smear barriers, seriousness, susceptibility and health motivation. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients for the five subscales ranged from 0.62 to 0.86, and test–retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0.79 to 0.87 for the subscales. Conclusion. The Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test was found to be a valid and reliable tool in assessing the women’s health beliefs. Understanding the beliefs of women in respect of cervical cancer and the Pap Smear Test will help healthcare professionals to develop more effective cervical cancer screening programmes.

Eda SAHIN
Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Turkey
Title: Evaluation of the quality of life of caregivers in gynecological cancer patients
Biography:
Dr. Eda Sahin received her Ph.D. from Gulhane Military Medical Academy. She is currently an lecturer Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at School of Nursing, Gulhane Military Medical Academy. Her research interests include early detection and prevention of gynecological cancers, breast cancer, violence against women, women’s health and nursing education.

Abstract:
Being diagnosed with cancer is a stressful life event that affects not only the individual but the family member’s daily activities, social and work life, and his/her quality of life (QoL) . The psychosocial effect of being diagnosed with cancer followed by the physical symptoms of the surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy lead to significant changes in the life of the individual and their family members. The recent advances in cancer management have led to increased survival even in patients with advanced stage cancer. However, cancer and the treatment duration can cause patients to become dependent on others for everyday activities. Some cancer treatments are administered on an outpatient basis, and patients go back to the care of someone else at their home after spending a little time at the hospital. These caregivers who provide home care for cancer patients are usually family members with inadequate strength, information, or preparation for this process. The medical treatment of cancer is complicated and caregivers have to assume various responsibilities such as arranging appointments, administering treatments, managing treatmentrelated symptoms, and providing physical and emotional care to the patient. During this process, caregivers may have to provide care in addition to shopping, taking care of housework, meeting other family members’ expectations, and making arrangements regarding their own social life. Caregivers suffer from anxiety regarding the patient’s health and from their inability to cure the patient, anxiety, stress, vagueness, depression, or loneliness and other psychological and physical disturbances. They may therefore have to cope with many different types of problems such as physical, emotional, social, and financial difficulties. A holistic approach to cancer management is crucial in the care of patients. However, patient’s treatment and care is the central medical concern, health professions including nurses should be involved in the support of caregivers as well. Every intervention to improve the QoL among caregivers is important not only for patients’ health but also for caregivers’ health. When considered from this point of view, nurses are responsible for providing education and consulting to caregivers of cancer patients as well as being responsible for patients’ care.

Yuba Raj Pokharel
South Asian University, India
Title: Relevance Rank Platform (RRP) for functional filtering of high content protein-protein interaction data
Biography:
Dr. Yuba Raj Pokharel, is currently working as Assistant Professor in the deaprtmnet of Cancer Biology, Faculty of Life Science and Biotechnology, South Asian University, South Asian University, India, he did his PhD from Chosun University, Gwangju, South Korea. His research interest includes Purification of protein complex to identify of Novel cancer- targeted proteins for future cancer therapeutics basically using siRNA approach and gene expression analysis and Pharmacological effects of different natural and herbal products in vitro and in vivo.

Abstract:
High content protein interaction screens have revolutionized our understanding of protein complex assembly. However, one of the major challenges for translation of high content protein interaction data is identification of those interactions that are functionally relevant for a particular biological question. To address this challenge, we developed a Relevance Ranking Platform (RRP), that combines both functional and bioinformatic filters to provide a relevance rank among the interactome proteins. We demonstrate the versatility of RRP to enable a systematic prioritization of the most relevant interaction partners from high content data; highlighted by the analysis of cancer relevant protein interactions for oncoproteins Pin1 and PME-1. We validate importance of selected interactions by demonstration of PTOV1 and CSKN2B as novel regulators of Pin1 target c-Jun phosphorylation, and reveal previously unknown interacting proteins that may mediate PME-1 effects via PP2A-inhibition. In summary, the data presented here introduces a novel approach to address one of the major challenges in functional translation of high content protein interaction data. The RRP framework presented in this work can supposedly be modified to answer versatile research questions depending on the nature of the biological question under study. Importantly, the data indicate that RRP has clearly added value especially for analysis of protein interactions for which there is no sufficient prior knowledge available for using existing filtering tools.