2nd World Congress and Expo on

Nanotechnology and Materials Science

April 04-06, 2016, Dubai, UAE

Scientific Programme(Day 2 : Apr-05-2016)

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Keynote Speakers

Nashaat N. Nassar
University of Calgary, Canada
Title: Role of nanoparticle technology in energy and the environment

Biography: Dr. Nassar is an assistant professor in the Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the University of Calgary, Alberta Canada. His research has covered various aspects of the processing, simulation and characterization of numerous types of metal-based nanoparticles. His main research interests are in the areas of nanotechnology and its applications in oil and gas industry, such as enhanced heavy oil upgrading and recovery, inhibition of asphaltene formation damage, asphaltene gasification, oil spillage remediation, produced and wastewater treatment, as well as air pollution control and polymeric nanocomposites. Dr. Nassar has trained around 25 graduate students and researchers. He published over 60 peer-reviewed publications and made over 50 technical presentations. He co-edited one book and obtained one United States patent. In addition to his excellent research activities, Dr. Nassar has outstanding teaching records as he is an expert in chemical, environmental and oil & gas engineering education, especially in process development and economy, separation processes, process design, effluent treatment processes, and natural gas processing technologies. Dr. Nassar has taught more than twenty five(25) different courses; at the graduate and undergraduate levels. In addition, Dr. Nassar has instructed and developed a number of workshops and short courses for new engineering graduates, technologists and professionals with different engineering background. Dr. Nassar is acting as the expert reviewer of several grant proposals and prestigious peer reviewed professional journals with high impact factor in the field of environment and energy; including Energy & Fuels, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Nanotechnology, Science of the Total Environment, Fuel Processing Technology, etc. Dr. Nassar is a professional member of APEGA, and he strongly believes that the health of our environment and the development of our technology go hand-in-hand.

Abstract: Nanoparticle technology is a promising field of interdisciplinary research, which opens up numerous opportunities in various fields in the energy and the environment. Hence, potential uses and benefits of such technology are enormous. Our Nanotechnology Research Group at the University of Calgary has carried out a number of research activities pertaining to the synthesis and direct application of metal-based nanoparticles for enhanced oil upgrading and recovery, wastewater treatment, and H2S and CO2 capture. Methods for the application of nanoparticle technology in heavy oil processing can be conveniently categorized as in-situ and ex-situ application. In the in-situ application, resembles the in-situ upgrading and recovery of heavy oil in reservoir, whereby nanoparticles are directly exposed to real heavy oil feed. In the ex-situ part, resembles the on surface upgrading, nanoparticles are incorporated and dispersed into support and consequently used in a packed-bed process using real heavy oil feed. In both cases, the presence of nanoparticles significantly enhanced the upgrading and recovery of heavy oil. For convectional oil recovery enhancement, nanoparticles could decrease the interfacial tension (IFT) and increase the contact area through the reservoir by improving of sweep efficiency. Other mechanisms by which nanoparticles improve the EOR performance include alteration of rock wettability, changes in permeability and reduction in oil viscosity and mobility ratio. In addition, adding nanoparticles to injecting fluid can also prevent formation damage as nanoparticles may serve as inhibitors for asphaltene precipitation. As for wastewater treatment, nanoparticles functionalized with a petroleum vacuum residue (VR) could be used successfully for removing oil from oil–saltwater emulsions at different ranges of pH values. As for H2S and CO2 capture, metal-based nanoparticles could capture sulphur and CO2 and convert them into a chemically inactive mineral within the oil reservoir during the upgrading and/or recovery processes. In this talk, we will show the recent findings obtained by our group pertaining to the use of in-house prepared metal-based nanoparticles for enhancing oil upgrading and recovery, wastewater remediation andH2S and CO2 capture. We believe our work in synthesis and application of nanoparticles will provideviable alternate clean technologies for enhancing oil recovery, wastewater treatment and CO2 capture.

Axel Lorke
University Duisburg-Essen, Germany
Title: Nanoparticle-Based Materials for Future Energy Applications

Biography: Axel Lorke received his PhD in Experimental Physics in 1991 from the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) Munich. He worked as a PostDoc at the University of Tokyo, the University of California, Santa Barbara, and the LMU Munich. In 2000 he was appointed full professor for Experimental Physics at the University of Duisburg- Essen. His work focuses on the electronic and optical properties nanostructures and low-dimensional semiconductors. From 2004 to 2010 he was the coordinator of the Collaborative Research Centre ‘Nanoparticles from the Gas Phase’. He is co-founder of the ‘Center for NanoIntegration Duisburg-Essen’ (CENIDE), and presently spokesperson of the Interdisciplinary Center for Analytics on the Nanoscale. Lorke is author and co-author of 6 patents and more than 160 refereed publications with a total of 5500 citations.

Abstract: Providing our society with clean and affordable energy has become one of the most important challenge of our times. In the past few years, the use of nanomaterials for energy-relevant technologies has become a topic of rapidly increasing interest. On the one hand, this is because nanostructured matter offers a route to novel materials, tailored to exhibit specific properties. On the other hand, nanoscale systems have a huge surface-to-volume ratio - and many energy-relevant processes take place at surfaces and interfaces (friction, charge transfer and storage, light-energy conversion, etc.). Some major challenges that need to be overcome in order to use nanotechnology in energy-relevant technologies are the production of sufficient amounts of material, a thorough understanding of the basic properties, and the integration into technologically relevant structures. In this talk, these topics will be addressed in the context of a few examples, which show the potential of nanomaterials in energy technologies. In particular, the use of nanoparticles from the gasphase will be discussed. Select topics will include thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, solid-state lighting, and battery technologies.

Udo Schwingenschloegl
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia
Title: First-Principles Calculations for 2D Materials

Biography: Dr. Udo Schwingenschlögl is a Professor of Materials Science & Engineering at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia. He previously worked at the International Center of Condensed Matter Physics in Brasilia, Brazil, and the Universität Augsburg in Germany.

Abstract: We discuss recent developments in the field of first-principles calculations addressing the structural and electronic properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials. The focus of the first part of the talk will be on silicene, the Si analogue of graphene, which is of great present interest due to its compatibility with the established Si technology. In particular, the effects of the substrate and strategies for achieving a quasi-freestanding configuration are addressed.Layered transition metal dichalcogenides have shown the potential to achieve 2Dmaterials applying routes based on specific growth techniques or resembling the exfoliation of graphene from graphite. The talk will focus on prototypical monolayer MoS2 to obtain insight into the influence of defects and substitutional doping on the material properties, for a wide range of transition metal dopants. Polar monolayers will be studied with respect to both their structural stability and the consequences of strong spin-orbit coupling. Strain is one of the most efficient tools to engineer to properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, though unexpected effects can be encountered. As an example,huge valley drifts off the corners of the Brillouin zone (K points) will be demonstrate for uniaxial strain, more than an order of magnitude larger than in graphene. In the context of the emerging field of valleytronics, the dependence of the valley polarization on the interplay between the spin-orbit coupling and the exchange interaction will be discussed.

Magnus Willander
Linköping University, Sweden
Title: Recent progress in some different nanostructures and nanocomposites for electrochemical applications and energy harvesting

Biography: Magnus Willander, who is a professor in Linköping University, Sweden and in Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, BINN, is and has been active in the fundamental and applied research in physics and chemistry. In these areas he has published around 1000 scientific articles. He has done several pioneering works on semiconductor and polymer devices and in nanotechnology.

Abstract: I will present recent results from us regarding growth, characterization and applications of different semiconducting and polymer nanostructures and nanocomposites. I will illustrate their potential applications on some different electrochemical applications such as chemical sensors, photodegradations of dyes, antibacterial applications, and different energy harvesting applications. I will do this for the nanostructures and nanocomposites on both flexible and solid substrates.

A.F.Mehdi Anwar
University of Connecticut, USA

Biography: Dr. Anwar is currently working on (a) ZnO Nanowire based UV detection and energy harvesting, (b) III-Nitrides and Oxide Semiconductor -based high power and high temperature quantum cascade lasers and (c) RF Oxide Semiconductor and III-Nitride HFETs and (d) memristors, to name a few. Dr. Anwar’s team pioneered the design of low noise antimony-based-compound-semiconductor (ABCS) HEMTs with quaternary buffer/barrier and ternary, with a measured fT around 200FGHz and Fmin of 0.82dB at 15GHz. He has presented over 40 plenary and invited talks at national/international conferences, published over 240 archival journal publications, conference proceedings and book chapters and edited 9 volumes. Dr. Anwar serves as an Editor of IEEE JEDS and served as an Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices (2001 – 2010) and serves as the conference chair of the international conference on Terahertz Physics, Devices and Systems, at SPIE Defense, Security and Sensing (2009-2015). Dr. Anwar is an SPIE Fellow


Giorgio Sberveglieri
University of Brescia & CNR-INO, Italy
Title: Metal oxides Nanotechnology for chemical sensors

Biography: Prof. Giorgio Sberveglieri received his degree in Physics cum laude from the University of Parma (Italy), where hestarted in 1971 his research activities on the preparation ofsemiconducting thin film solar cells. He is currently Director of the CNR –INO Brescia Section and SENSOR Laboratory at Brescia University( http://sensor.ing.unibs.it )where are working in the permanent staff more than 20 Researchers. Heis also the Deputy Director of the Department of Information Engineeringin University of Brescia. In 1988 he established the Sensor Lab, mainly devoted to the preparationand characterization of chemical sensors based on nanostrucured metaloxide semiconductors either in form of thin film or more recently asnanowires and nanobelts. Furthermore, since the mid 90s, the lab isfocusing on the area of Electronic Noses for security, food andenvironmental applications. In 1994, he was appointed full Professor in Experimental Physics. He isreferee of many international journals and has acted as Chairman in several Conferences onMaterials Science and on Sensors. He has been the General Chairman ofIMCS11th (11th International Meeting on Chemical Sensors) and of the EUROSENSORS 2014 Conference. He published about 470 papers, including 5 cover papers, getting over 7700 citations and an h-index of 45.

Abstract: After the first method proposed for the preparation of metal oxide in forms of nanobelts, plenty of literature was devoted to different experimental techniques that may lead to the formation of these quasi one-dimensional structures. At the beginning, the research was focusing on the vapour phase methods that were producing, with cheap instrumentation, high quality nanostructures in terms of crystallinity and stoichiometry. We have thoroughly studied the synthesis using evaporation and condensation from powder in controlled environment using different experimental set up. Metal oxide nanowires were integrated in our lab in functional devices for chemical sensing and then tested towards a wide range of chemicals, including odorous molecules and Warfare Agents.
The ability to prepare metal oxide in form of single crystalline nanowire has pushed further the research on this topic especially for the integration in functional devices such as chemical and gas sensors. There is still a lot of work going on regarding the preparation of oxides, like controlling their morphology and position at the nanoscale level. A big issue concerning the development of sensors is their reliable integration on the specific transducers, assuring stable electrical contacts over long-term operation. The ability to prepare stable single crystal quasi one-dimensional metal oxide nanostructures is having an impact on different aspects of science and technology. In particular, their integration in gas sensing devices lead to a significant improvement in stability providing stable and reliable electrical contacts. Furthermore, the possible miniaturization of these devices may produce a strong decrease in power consumption, the use of self heating devices allow the sensing even without the presence of a heater on the transducers.
Combining experimental and simulations techniques in a multidisciplinary and complementary approach, will result in a maximization of the understanding and therefore in the preparation of reliable chemical sensing devices for diverse applications like food safety, security and environment monitoring

Session Chair:
Shanghai Jiaotong University, P.R. China

Session Introduction

Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Title: Bioinspired materials templates by nature species

Biography: Professor ZHANG Di, male, was born in March 1957. He is a professor of materials science of the “Yangtze River (Changjiang) Scholarship Scheme”. In March 1988, he acquired his PhD degree from Osaka University, Japan. Now he is the vice dean of the School of Materials Science and Engineering, the director of the Institute of Composite Materials and the deputy director of the State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites of SJTU, and concurrently an executive member of the Chinese Society of Composite Materials, the head of its Professional Committee on Metal Matrix and Ceramics Composites, an editing member of the Chinese Journal of Nonferrous Metals and Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica and a member of the Committee of the Development of Functional Wood Ceramics of the New Energy & Industrial Technology Development Organization of Japan. His research focuses on light weight and high strength materials, metal matrix composites and materials used for ceramic cells and fuel cell. His development of the in-situ reinforced Ti-based composites and the Mg-Li-based composites are of international level while his research in the recent years has brought to the great attention of the industrial circle and the academic circle of Japan of the fabrication of wood ceramics from the waste wood-based materials such as wood pulp fiber and of the fabrication the green composites by composition of the wood ceramics and metals that has an integration of structure and function. Breakthrough has been achieved in solving the problems in the development of the key materials for long life ceramic cell. Electrolyte substrate of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) has been developed, with a successful trial of power generation of it. In the recent five years, he has taken up 19 research projects of the National Natural Science Foundation, the Cross-century Talent Fund of the State Ministry of Education and other international cooperations, etc., the total cost of which has amounted to 4.53 million Chinese Dollar. He has his 349 research papers indexed by SIC published, H-index is 38. He owns 2 international patents.

Abstract: Biological materials naturally display an astonishing variety of sophisticated nanostructures that are difficult to obtain even with the most technologically advanced synthetic methodologies. Inspired from nature materials with hierarchical structures, many functional materials are developed based on the templating synthesis method. This review will introduce the way to fabricate novel functional materials based on nature bio-structures with a great diversity of morphologies, in State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University in near five years. We focused on replicating the morphological characteristics and the functionality of a biological species (e.g. wood, agriculture castoff, butterfly wings). We change their original components into our desired materials with original morphologies faithfully kept. Properties of the obtained materials are studied in details. Based on these results, we discuss the possibility of using these materials in photonic control, solar cells, electromagnetic shielding, energy harvesting, and gas sensitive devices, et al. In addition, the fabrication method could be applied to other nature substrate template and inorganic systems that could eventually lead to the production of optical, magnetic. or electric devices or components as building blocks for nanoelectronic, magnetic, or photonic integrated systems. These bioinspired functional materials with improved performance characteristics are becoming increasing important, which will have great values on the development on structural function materials in the near future.

Didier Letourneur
Cardiovascular Bio-engineering - INSERM, France
Title: Design and in vivo Validations of Nanosytems in Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering and Molecular Imaging

Biography: Prof. Didier LETOURNEUR, engineer, doctor in chemistry, is Director of Research at the CNRS. In 2002, he founded a research structure Inserm-University Paris 13 (ERIT-M 0204), focused on the use of biomedical polymers for 3D structures and contrast agents for vascular imaging. Since 2005, he leads the team of Cardiovascular Bioengineering at Inserm U698 (CHU X Bichat, University Paris Nord and Paris Diderot). After the last evaluation in 2013 by AERES, the laboratory received the A + rating on all 6 criteria. D. Letourneur is actively involved in several national grants (ANR TECSAN, RPIB, Emergence...), in Health cluster Medicen Ile de France, in European FP7 projects and since 2013 as European coordinator in NMP "NanoAthero" large scale program project (16 partners, 10 countries, € 12.8 millions). D. Letourneur is the author of 105 international publications, inventor of 14 patents, and won several prizes "Coup d’Elan for Research" Foundation Bettencourt 2001, Diderot Innovation Award 2009 CNRS-University Paris 7, Cardiovascular Innovation Award 2011 from the Medical Research Foundation, and OSEO Creation-Dev 2013.

Abstract: This presentation intends to present polysaccharide-based matrices for regenerative medicine and as drug delivery systems and targeted contrast agents for molecular imaging with an emphasis on cardiovascular pathologies. We will present exemples of innovative nano medical imaging tools. In the context of atherothrombotic diseases, there is a need for new approaches for early diagnosis and improved therapies. This is the focus of NanoAthero, an European large scale project, started in February 2013. The aim is to demonstrate that nanotechnologies can be developed and clinically proven to be effective in tackling cardiovascular diseases. The NanoAthero consortium is a unique opportunity to extend the frontiers of knowledge on atherothrombosis management. NanoAthero aims to demonstrate the preliminary clinical feasibility of the use of nanosystems for targeted imaging and treatment of advanced atherothrombotic disease in humans. NanoAthero combines in-depth knowledge of nanocarrier bioengineering and production with state-of-the-art expertise in imaging and treatment of cardiovascular patients providing a full framework of 16 partners within one collaborative European consortium (16 partners from 10 countries - see http://www.nanoathero.eu/). We will also present how to use nanomaterials for regenerative medicine. Indeed, adhesion by aqueous nanoparticle solutions can be used in vivo in rats to achieve rapid and strong closure and healing of deep wounds in skin and liver. Nanoparticles can also be used to fix polymer membranes to tissues even in the presence of blood flow, such as occurring after liver resection, yielding permanent hemostasis within a minute. Furthermore, medical devices and tissue engineering constructs could be fixed to organs such as a beating heart.

Nekane Guarrotxena
Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Spain
Title: Highly efficient and ultrasensitive nanosensor of proteins

Biography: Nekane Guarrotxenais a PhD from the University of Complutense, Madrid-Spain in 1994 and has been post-doctoral research at the EcoleNationaleSuperieured´Arts et Metiers, Paris-France (1994-1995) and the University of ScienceII, Montpellier-France (1995-1997). From 2008-2011, she was visiting professor in the Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Materials at University of California, Santa Barbara-USA and the CaSTL at University of California, Irvine-USA. She is currently Research Scientist at the Institute of Polymers Science and Technology, CSIC-Spain. Her research interest focuses on the synthesis and assembly of hybrid nanomaterials, nanoplasmonics, and their uses in nanobiotechnology applications (bioimaging, drug delivery, therapy and biosensing).

Abstract: Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is attributed primarily to the enhancement of the incident and scattered electromagnetic fields near metal surfaces through excitation of localized surface plasmons. This condition requires positioning the reporting molecule within special sites in nanostructured metal surfaces (hot spots) where the enhancement is greatest. A readily available and reliable hot spot is found in the junction between two metal NPs. In this sense, our current work hasengineered a successful nanostructured tool for developing sensory materials that incorporate important improvements in SERS-tags sensitivity (femtoMolardetection level) by properly managing the interaction between Ag-nanoparticles within nanoassemblies; making dimer-like nanostructures ideal in a wide range of tagging, sensing, and analysis applications.

Enzuo Liu
Tianjin University, China
Title: Interfacial Lithium Storage in Graphene/Metal Oxide and Sulphide

Biography: Enzuo Liu is an associate professor at school of materials science and technology of Tianjin University (China). Prior to joining TJU in 2009, he completed his Ph.D. in physics at Tsinghua University (China), in 2007, and worked in Prof. Jianzhong Jiang's group at Zhejiang University (China) as postdoc. His research aims at improving the nanocomposites properties through interface engineering.

Abstract: Graphene/metal oxide and sulphide nanocomposites have been widely studied as anode materials for lithium ion batteries and exhibit excellent electrochemical properties, due to the synergistic effect between graphene and metal oxide and sulfide. Based on the first-principles total energy calculations, it is revealed that interfacial oxygen atoms play an important role on the interfacial lithium storage of G/TiO2. Surface and interfacial lithium storage via an electrostatic capacitive mechanism contributes significantly to the electrode capacity. In graphene/metal sulphide nanocomposites, Li adsorption energies at interfaces are larger than that on the corresponding metal sulphide surfaces with almost no enhancement of the energy barriers for Li atom diffusion. The enhanced Li adsorption capability at Li2S/G interface contributes to the extra storage capacity of graphene/metal sulphide composites. Thereby, a smart composite consisting of sandwich-like nanosheets with uniform MoS2@carbon-coated ultrathin TiO2 nanosheets has been constructed through facile hydrothermal method to enhance the cycling and rate performances of MoS2. In this uniform sandwich-like structure, carbon-coated ultrathin TiO2 is conformably embedded by MoS2 shells via intimate interfacial contacts, while the carbon coats TiO2 via Ti-O-C bonds. Due to the abundant interfaces in the composites, as well as the high structure stability of TiO2 during charge and discharge cycles, high-performance of the lithium-ion battery anode material is obtained.

Yishi Su
Shanghai JiaoTong University, P.R. China
Title: Structural modeling and mechanical behavior of particle reinforced metal matrix composites

Biography: Dr. Su Yishi completed his PhD from the University of Technology of Troyes, France and postdoctoral research from Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Currently, he is the assistant Professor of Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the member of Japan Institute of Metals. He has chaired and participated the National Natural Science Foundation, the National Basic Research Program and Shanghai Materials Genome Program of China. He has published more than 10 peer-reviewed papers in Materials Science and Engineering A, Journal of Composite Materials and other journals. His current research interests are focused in the Metal Matrix Composites and Materials Genome Computation

Abstract: Particle reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) have the very large potential to provide ultrahigh mechanical properties, for example specific stiffness and specific strength, in the civil and defense applications as well as the automotive and aerospace industries [1]. Considering the materials characteristics and producing processes, composite structures of particle reinforced MMCs largely depend on their reinforced particles [2], such as: the sizes, the shapes, the positions and the contents in the MMCs. Meanwhile, the particle-matrix interfaces are also largely retained and they further affect the mechanical behaviors of particle reinforced MMCs [3]. However, it is very difficult to completely use experimental analysis to find the key parameters in the composite structures, which should be improved to optimize the overall tensile behavior of particle reinforced MMCs [4]. Along with structural modeling of particle reinforced MMCs, the cohesive interfacial model was introduced to carry out the mechanical deformation of particle reinforced MMCs [5]. These structural models of particle reinforced MMCs are based upon experimental observations that can provide useful guidelines to a certain extent for optimum composite structures design. Therefore, a long way still exists to go before the potential of particle reinforced MMCs can be wholly achieved to develop new strong and lightweight materials in both material design and industrial applications. The present work aims to investigate the intrinsic relation between the mechanical behavior and composite structure coupling with particle-matrix interfacial behavior within the particles (e.g. SiC and CNT) reinforced aluminum matrix composites [6, 7]. Based on the statistical geometrical information of numerous reinforced particles, a developed three-dimensional (3D) structural modeling program can not only establish structural models close to reality of reinforced particles, but also reproduce composite structures similar to those of actual particle reinforced MMCs. In these created structural models, the random dispersions of the sizes, the shapes, the positions and the contents of reinforced particles can be realized according to the structural characteristics of composites. To perform the mechanical behaviors of particle reinforced MMCs, elastoplastic mechanical properties with particle-matrix interfacial behaviors are applied, and reasonable loads and boundaries are conducted. The results indicate that the particle content, matrix strengthening and interfacial behavior play the significant role in the enhancing effect, in order to understand the mechanical deformation in the particle reinforced MMCs.

Ding-Bang Xiong
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Title: Bioinspired Graphene-Copper Matrix Nanocomposites


Abstract: Metals can be strengthened by adding hard reinforcements, but such strategyusually compromises ductility andtoughness. Natural nacre consists of hard and soft phases organized in a regular ‘brick-and-mortar’ structure and exhibits a superior combination of mechanical strength and toughness,[1] which is an attractive model for strengthening and toughening artificial composites, but such bioinspired metal matrix composite has yet to be made. Here we prepared nacre-like reduced graphene oxide (RGrO) reinforced Cu matrix composite based on a preform impregnation process, by which two-dimensional RGrOwas used as ‘brick’ and inserted into ‘□-and-mortar’ ordered porous Cu preform (the symbol ‘□’ means the absence of ‘brick’), followed by compacting.[2] This process realized uniform dispersion and alignment of RGrO in Cu matrix simultaneously. The RGrO-and-Cu artificial nacres exhibited simultaneous enhancement on yield strength and ductility as well as increased modulus, attributed to RGrO strengthening, effective crack deflection and a possible combined failure mode of RGrO. The artificial nacres also showed significantly higher strengthening efficiency than other conventional Cu matrix composites, which might be related to the alignment of RGrO.

Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteurs pour l’Energétique, Algérie
Title: Morphological, Structural and Optical Properties of Porous Silicon Nanowires (PSiNWr) Film Elaborated on N-Si Substrate


Abstract: In The last years, nanostructures of materials, as the porous silicon nanowires (PSiNWs), have been used extensively studied for the development of several chemical, electro-chemical and biologic sensors, because of their physical and chemical characteristics. The PSiNWs present a unique property, like the biocompatibility and the multifunctional. The PSiNWs can be elaborated from lightly n-type (100) silicon substrate by Ag assisted chemical etching method. After porous silicon nanowires growth a multitude of charatcterisation by different techniques has been carried out as, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), spectrophotometry (reflexion-transmission), photoluminescence (PL), infrared spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As interesting results, a reflectance value lower than 2% and a strong photoluminescence signal, with a pic centered at the 600 nm have been found from the elaborated samples. Finally, the obtained results can find application in low-cost and high efficiency porous silicon nanowires based solar cells.

Cindy Gunawan
University of Technology Sydney Ultimo, Australia
Title: Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Nanosilver

Biography: Cindy Gunawan received her Bachelor of Engineering (Bioprocess Engineering) in 2002 and her PhD in Biotechnology in 2006 from The University of New South Wales (UNSW), Australia. She is currently a Chancellor’s Research Fellow in the ithree Institute, University of Technology Sydney. Her research specialises on the fusion of cellular biology and nanomaterials engineering with expertise in the elucidation of nanoparticle-cell interactions.

Abstract: Nanosilver is currently the most developed and commercialised antimicrobial nanomaterials. With proven efficacy against a broad spectrum of microorganisms, companies are now adding nanosilver as core antimicrobial ingredients in medical and personal care products, household appliances, as dietary supplements and even in baby products, just to name a few. The increasing use of nanosilver has raised global concerns with regard to the potential development of resistant microorganisms toward these nanoparticles. Here we report for the first time the natural ability of the near ubiquitously-occurring Bacillus spp. to adapt to nanosilver cytotoxicity upon prolonged exposure (Gunawan et al., 2013). The combined adaptive effects of nanosilver resistance and enhanced extent of growth lead to the ultimate domination of the resistant bacteria in the microbiota, to which nanosilver is continuously applied. Importantly, we found that the adaptive effects are stable, in other words the effects are still present even following discontinuation of the nanosilver exposure. The observations of adaptation and ultimate domination of Bacillus spp. are relevant to wider microbiotas, presenting consequences of extensive microorganism exposure, including those that dwell in the human body, to bioavailable silver derived from the products. The discovery is an alert to the common perception of nanosilver as a risk-free antimicrobial.

C. Yaddaden
Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteurs pour l’Energétique, Algérie
Title: Characterisation of Porous Silicon Nanowires (PSiNWr) Film Elaborated and Modified by Organic Species


Abstract: In The last years, nanostructures of materials, as the porous silicon nanowires (PSiNWs), have been used extensively studied for the development of several chemical, electro-chemical and biologic sensors, because of their physical and chemical characteristics. The PSiNWs present a unique property, like the biocompatibility and the multifunctional. The PSiNWs can be elaborated from lightly n-type (100) silicon substrate by Ag assisted chemical etching method. The obtained surfaces were grafted with organic functional groups; first, we proceed by the grafting of acid monolayer on hydrogenated PSiNWs surface by hydrosylilation reaction to form Si-C covalent bond. Then, a reactive ester is generated from the terminal acid groups and subsequently this activated surface is coupled with peptide containing amines by the formation of amide bond. This strategy is based on that used for the immobilization of biomolecules (DNA, proteins, antibodies ...) to elaborate biosensors [1-3]. At each step of the modification, the resulting surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Different characterization techniques were used to investigate the resulting nanostructures, such as SEM, XPS, FTIR and electrochemical measurements. Finally, the obtained results can find application in low-cost and high efficiency porous silicon nanowires based applications were envisaged in environmental area. The obtained hybrid structure was tested as probe electrode to the electrochemical detection of mercury in solution.

Ghaphene Technologies
Nanocomposites and Multifunctional Materials
Carbon nanomaterials, devices and technologies

Session Introduction

Plenary Talk

M.V. Reddy
National University of Singapore (NUS) Singapore
Title: Room Temperature synthesized Graphene/MOPOF Nanocomposites for Low-cost Li Battery Cathodes

Biography: Dr. M.V. Reddy obtained his Ph. D (mention with highest honours) in 2003 in from ICMCB-CNRS)/ENSCPB, University of Bordeaux, France. From July 2003, he is working in National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore. For the last 15 years, he has been working on the Li-ion battery materials (cathodes, anodes, supercapacitors and solid electrolytes), including novel methods of synthesis, characterization and evaluation of the electrochemical properties. He has published around 130 papers in various international journals and one critical review paper, and gave 58 talks (Plenary(3), keynote (3) and Invited talks(38) and 16 contributed talks) at various conferences. His h-index; 36 and over 5000 citations. He is serving as editorial advisory board member in “Materials Research Bulletin” and several other open access Journals and Societies. He served as theme chair for Energy and Environment and session chair for Batteries, Fuel cells and materials for Environmental protection in International Conference of Young Researchers on Advanced Materials (ICYRAM-IUMRS) 2012, Singapore. Serving as member in International center for diffraction data (ICDD), USA. He trained many local high school/college and International exchange students. His projects won many awards in national and international conferences and his project won 2nd prize in prestigious Intel International Science & Engg. Fair (ISEF 2013) and 1st prize from American Chemical Society, USA. He won outstanding Science Mentorship Award (2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2015), from Ministry of Education, Singapore and Inspiring Research Mentor Award (2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 & 2015) from NUSHS. For other details http://scholar.google.com.sg/citations?user=pWKr2M0AAAAJ&hl=en

Abstract: Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are the best available technology today to push forward the production of eco-friendly electric vehicles (EVs) to reduce the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. In addition, they are promising for efficient utilization of renewable energy sources which needs to be stored for usage. The transformation from conventional vehicles run by fossil fuels to battery powered EVs are mainly hindered by the high upfront price of the EVs which is mainly due to the high cost of the battery packs used in these vehicles. Hence, cost reduction of LIBs is one of the major strategies to bring forth the EVs to compete in the market with their gasoline counterparts. Cathode materials account for more than 40% of the total cost of LIBs and hence the cost reduction should primarily focus on alternative low cost cathode materials. In this work, Graphene/ MOPOF (Metal Organophosphate Open Framework) nanocomposites, G/K2[(VO)2(HPO4)2(C2O4)] with ~4 V of operation has been developed by a cost effective room temperature synthesis that eliminates any expensive post-synthetic treatments at high temperature and devoid of inert atmospheres like Ar/Ar-H2. Though the pristine MOPOF material can undergo reversible lithium storage, it encounter capacity fading due to intrinsic poor conductivity. Enhanced lithium cycling with minimal capacity fading was witnessed with the graphene nanocomposite owing to the increased electronic conductivity and enhanced Li diffusivity. GITT studies to examine the Li ion conduction in the material revealed the good Li ion diffusion coefficients in the framework, which are of the order of some layered oxide cathodes.

Maher S. Amer
Wright State University, USA
Title: Gigantic Challenges, Nano-Solutions

Biography: Dr. Amer is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, a von Humboldt Fellow, Max Planck Society, Germany, and a former Visiting Fellow of the Fitzwilliam College, University of Cambridge, England. Dr. Amer is a member of a number of national and international committees focused on nanomanufacturing and higher education accreditation. He received his Ph.D. from Drexel University 1995.

Abstract: As we are rapidly approaching year 2050 and the population capacity of planet Earth, it becomes a must to, sooner better than later, face our gigantic challenges. It is widely known that our global stability is seriously threatened by the consequences of our depleting energy and clean water resources. Extensive scientific research over the past 15 years has shown that Nano-technology-based solutions hold promising answers to our pressing needs. However, It is very important to understand the thermodynamic fundamentals governing the structure and performance of such thermodynamic small systems especially their ability to selectively interact with certain chemical moieties and with electromagnetic radiation. Understanding such fundamentals will definitely lead to unique solutions for our pressing challenges. Nanostructured films and membranes engineered to selectively adsorb unwanted chemical, and biological species can provide a valuable solution for water treatment, desalination, and can definitely contribute to the world’s water and environmental challenge. In addition, photovoltaics batteries based on nanostructured fullerene films are also a very promising rout to explore when addressing energy challenges. In this talk, we will discuss both experimental and molecular simulation fundamental work, done in our research group, as related to Energy and water challenges.

Ammar Nayfeh
Masdar Institute of Science and Technology Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Title: Use of Nanoparticles and Nanoplatelets in Low-Power Non-volatile Charge Trapping Memory Devices

Biography: Ammar Nayfeh was born in Urbana IL in 1979. He received his bachelor's degree from the University of Illinois Urbana Champaign in 2001 in electrical engineering and his master's degree in 2003 from Stanford University. Dr. Nayfeh earned a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 2006. His research focused on heteroepitaxy of Germanium on Silicon. After his PhD, he joined Advanced Micro Devices as a researcher working in collaboration with IBM. Following that, he then spent a year as a consultant with PDF solutions and later joined a silicon valley start up, Innovative Silicon (ISi) in 2008. In addition, he was a part time professor at San Jose State University. In June 2010, he joined MIT as a visiting scholar and became a faculty member at the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology in Abu Dhabi, UAE. At Masdar, he is director of the Nano Electronics and Photonics Laboratory where his primary research interests include, novel PV devices, Low-Power Nano-Electronics, High-Performance Nano-Electronics, Nano-Photonics, and Nano-Memory Technologies. Professor Nayfeh is currently an associate professor in the Department Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) at the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology. Professor Ammar Nayfeh has authored or co-authored over 70 publications, and holds two patents. He is a member of IEEE, MRS and Stanford Alumni Association. He has received the Material Research Society Graduate Student Award, the Robert C. Maclinche Scholarship at UIUC, and Stanford Graduate Fellowship. Additional information on Professor Ammar Nayfeh’s research can be found at http://www.nep-masdar.com.

Abstract: Recently, one of the main developments and application of FLASH memory is flexible, low-cost and reliable solid state memory, such as removable memory, non-volatile memory for portable electronics and solid-state hard drive. For the next-generation electronics, the research of non-volatile memory focus on fast programming/erasing and low-power applications for excellent portable electronics and extremely long battery life [1]. It has been reported that it is possible to reduce the operating voltage of silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon memory devices from 10 V down to 4 V by reducing the tunnel oxide thickness, however, the retention characteristic of the memory will be reduced from 10 years down to a couple of seconds [2]. Therefore, the investigation of novel materials to be incorporated within current non-volatile memory devices is crucial. In this work, Si and InN nanoparticles, and graphene nanoplatelets are studied as the charge trapping layers of charge trapping memory devices [3-6]. The active layers of the memory devices were deposited using Atomic Layer Deposition, and the nanoparticles were spin coated on the samples. Electrical measurements such as I-V and high-frequency C-V measurements are conducted on the samples in order to study the effect of embedding the nanoparticles/nanoplatelets in the memory cells. The results show that large memory windows can be obtained due to the large charge trapping density of the nanoparticles/nanoplatelets. In addition, the measured retention characteristics are excellent which is due to the large band offset between the nanoparticles and tunnel oxide which exponentially reduce the leakage current. Moreover, using nanoparticles within the charge trapping layer allows for reducing the tunnel oxide thickness without degrading the retention characteristic of the memory. Furthermore, smaller Si nanoparticles (2-nm average size) showed hole storage while larger nanoparticles (2.85-nm) showed mixed charge storage. This is due to the smaller electron affinity of the smaller nanoparticles which reduces the conduction band offset with the tunnel oxide and therefore may inhibit electron storage. On the other hand, InN and graphene have very large electron affinities and pure electron storage is observed. In fact, the use of nanoparticles with high electron affinity will enable a memory fully programmed and erased using pure electrons instead of mixed charges which would increase the speed of the write and erase speeds of the cells. Finally, the charge emission mechanism from Si channel to the nanoparticles through the tunnel oxide is studied for the different samples. The memory with 2-nm Si nanoparticles allowed a large memory window at low operating voltages due to Poole-Frenkel hole emission mechanism, while Phonon-Assisted Tunneling and Fowler-Nordheim Tunneling require higher electric fields across the tunnel oxide and therefore higher operating voltages are needed as in the case of the memory cells with InN and graphene nanoplatelets.

Naiqin Zhao
Tianjin University, China
Title: In-Situ Grown Nanocarbon Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites

Biography: Naiqin Zhao is a professor
in the School of Materials Science and Engineering at Tianjin University and the Director of the Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials. She obtained her B.Sc. and Ph.D. at Tianjin University. She was a visiting scholar at Illinois Institute of Technology and The Hong Kong Polytechnic University; and a visiting proffessor at Tohoku University and Vanderbilt University. Her research interests focus on phase transformation and properties of alloys and composites, and the synthesis and characteristics of the carbon nano-phase and its composites.

Abstract: For the traditional metal matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced by particles or fibers, the inverse relationship between strength and toughness has become a bottleneck to their development and applications. The key to solve the problem is to develop novel types and structures of reinforcement, as well as new composite techniques. Nanocarbon materials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene (GN), which possess unique nanoscale structures and combined superior mechanical and functional properties, are regarded as ideal components for constructing MMCs with delicately designed spatial structure. However, traditional ex-situ methods usually failed to fulfill the homogeneous dispersion of nanocarbon materials, resulting in unsatisfactory mechanical enhancement effects. For this, our group proposed an in-situ chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for producing CNTs and GN reinforced MMCs. We have succeeded in preparing CNTs/Metal (Al, Cu, Mg, etc.) composites by growing CNTs directly on the surface of a matrix on which well dispersed nano-metallic catalysts. Furthermore, with connected network-like spatial distribution of CNTs by a short-time ball milling strategy, well-balanced strength and ductility were obtained in CNT-reinforced Al. Recently, we have developed an easy and scalable method to in-situ synthesis uniformly dispersed, high-quality GN in copper matrix using a water-soluble NaCl template. The obtained 3D GN with ultrathin graphene walls embedded by homogenous Cu NPs was a result of steric hindrance effect of NaCl assemblies. The adjustable and dramatically enhanced mechanical properties of GN/Cu composites have been obtained by varying the volume fraction of the reinforcement through an impregnation-annealing-hot pressed sintering strategy. A simultaneous enhancement on yield strength and ductility as well as increased modulus were achieved by the formation of GN network structure with optimized amount of localized 3D GN in the matrix.

Hussam Muhamedsalih
University of Huddersfield, UK
Title: In-line Surface Metrology for Roll to Roll Manufacture of Thin Film Barrier

Biography: Dr Hussam Muhamedsalih is a research fellow in the EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology at the University of Huddersfield. Hussam initially joined the University of Huddersfield to study for an MSc in Control Systems and Instrumentation, graduated in 2008. Continuing his studies at Huddersfield, Hussam was awarded a PhD on May 2013 for the project ‘Investigation of wavelength scanning interferometry for embedded metrology’. The aim of his research is to break new ground by delivering solutions in advanced metrology for the next generation of high added-value products to assist industry achieving the paradigm shift toward smart factories.

Abstract: The growing market for large-area printed electronics and flexible solar cells in particular have stimulated the development of commercial Roll to Roll manufacture of nano-scale AlOx thin film barriers to limits the impact of environmental degradation. Increasing the yield of Roll to Roll ALD manufactured thin film barriers faces a major challenge of developing in-line detection of micro/nano-scale defects on film surfaces. These defects have been shown to have negative impact on the performance of the barriers resulting in reduced efficiency and lifespan of the coated PV modules. This paper introduces wavelength scanning interferometer (WSI) system developed as part of the EU funded NanoMend project. The system comprises a full in-line opto-mechanical solution for defect detection in 40nm thick Atomic Layer Deposition, ALD, coated environmental barrier films used for photovoltaic (PV) solar modules. The WSI has a 6nm vertical resolution and is embedded within a Roll to Roll film-rewinder stage and integrated with the substrate translation and kinematic stages. The system additionally has an auto-focus ability to adjust the focal plane on the top surface of the film with an accuracy and repeatability better than 6 µm at optimum optical alignment conditions. As a result, the metrology system allows surface measurement over full substrate widths of approximately 0.5m and the consequent measurement time required for each area of captured data is less than 1 sec. To ameliorate external vibrations the measurement solution combines a dual path interferometer and a non-contact film holding capability. The Roll to Roll inspection process and measurement results provide evidence for further development of in-line/in-process metrology systems that can be used on a shop floor.

Arwa AAlbar
KAUST, Saudi Arabia
Title: Polar catastrophe by fractional charge differences


Abstract: Ab-initio calculations within density functional theory are used to investigate theelectronic states at the stoichiometric SnO/SnO2(110) interface. Although theinterface lacks a polar discontinuity, we observe the formation of a twodimensional hole gas between wide band gap semiconductors. We explain the findings byproviding a model based on the idea that the stoichiometry discontinuity between SnO and SnO2 creates fractional charge differences, which in turn drive a polarcatastrophe scenario.

Feo V Kusmartsev
Loughborough University, UK
Title: Topological Insulators, Superconductors and Majorana Fermions

Biography: FeoV Kusmartsev is an professor and Vice Head of Physics Department at Loughborough University, UK

Abstract: Following original idea1 leading to a discovery of Topological Insulatorswe describe the recent developments of the subject in a detail. In particular we focus on TopologicalSuperconductors and Majorana Fermions. SuchMajoranashave strong potential to be used in various graphene devices2 as well as infuture topological adiabatic quantum computers3 due to their non-Abelianbraiding statistics. We describe the theory of topological insulators and superconductor and show howMajorana fermions and topological superconductivity may arisethere considering thespinlesspx±ipy superconductors and hybrid systems.Graphene is not flat and has microscopic lattice nano-corrugations inherent to all two-dimensional crystals4. We showthat such corrugations may provide channeling opportunities for electrons5 that can be used in a new design of p-n junctions and transistors2 or for a creation of Majoranas. The graphene lattice distortions can not only generate the state of topological insulator but also induce the magnetization oscillations and the Hofstadter butterfly in graphene flakes6. We discuss also physical properties of Zenertunnelling nano-devices7 and Aharonov-Bohm effect in graphene nanoring focusing on the case when there are arising levitons8. Graphene bubbles is another example where topological states may exist9. We also discuss tunneling, stochastic and extraordinary magnetoresistance phenomena arising in these systems10,11,12.

Vahid Jabbari
The University of Texas at El Paso, USA
Title: Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic Iron Oxide-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite (Fe3O4@GrO)

Biography: Vahid Jabbari research covers vast range of science and technology including Nanomaterials, Nanostructures, Polymer, Carbon Nanostructures, Semiconductor, MOFs, Energy and Water Remediation. He published around 40 papers in peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences, and several book chapters. He has served as a member of technical, scientific, and organizing committee of numerous international conferences, symposiums and expos in Turkey, UAE, Tunisia, Mexico, France, China, India, Thailand, Greece, Singapore, Spain, UK, and USA. He also is reviewer and editor for numerous prestigious scientific journals.

Abstract: Graphene oxide (GrO) and carbon nanotubes(CNTs) own excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, durability and tunable surface chemistry and are vastly applied in various fields, especially structural composite materials. Owning large dimension in the XY plane which reaches few micrometers and significantly thin thickness (nanometer scale) in Z-axis, GrO and CNTs have huge surface area and tunable surface chemistry and are great candidates to act as platform for loading various nanoparticles.Superparamagnetic iron (III) oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 MNPs) have been significantly explored due to their vast potential applications in biomedicine (cancer treatment, MRI contrast agent, magnetic separation, drug delivery) and water remediation. Due to the synergetic effects, Fe3O4@GrO and Fe3O4@CNTcan have ample applications in in solid-phase extraction, electrochemical sensing, catalysis, water remediation, drug delivery, cancer treatment and so on.

Zohreh Ghorannevis
Islamic Azad University, Iran
Title: Structural and Morphological Properties of ITO Thin Films Grown by Magnetron Sputtering


Abstract: One of the best methods for growing Transparent and conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films on soda lime glass substrates is radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Physical properties (such as structural and morphological) of ITO thin films are studied by effect of growth time on the thin films systematically. It is investigated that by increasing deposition time, thickness of the thin films increases. The X-ray diffraction data indicate polycrystalline thin films with grain orientations predominantly along (222) and (400) directions and the average grain size of thin films increases from 10 nm to 30 nm, respectively.