World Congress and Expo on
Nanotechnology and Materials Science
April 13-15, 2015, Dubai, UAE

Scientific Programme(Day 2 : Apr-14-2014)

Keynote Forum

Ravindra K. Pandey
Roswell Park Cancer Institute, USA
keynote: Advantages and Limitations of Nanotechnology
Biography:


Abstract:
Nanotechnology is the science to manipulate the matter in nanoscale. It is seen as the way of the future and this technology is believed to bring benefit in our daily life. But, no technology can be perfect and there will always be advantages and limitations of all the existing and future technologies.

Advantages of Nanotechnology:
  • Nanotechnology can actually revolutionize a lot of electronic products, procedures, and applications. The areas that benefit from the continued development of nanotechnology when it comes to electronic products include nano transistors, nano diodes, plasma displays, quantum computers, and many more.

  • Nanotechnology can also benefit the energy sector. The development of more effective energy-producing, energy-absorbing, and energy storage products in smaller and more efficient devices is possible with this technology. Such items like batteries, fuel cells, and solar cells can be built smaller but can be made to be more effective with this technology.

  • Another industry that can benefit from nanotechnology is the manufacturing sector that will need materials like nanotubes, aerogels, nano particles, and other similar items to produce their products with. These materials are often stronger, more durable, and lighter than those that are not produced with the help of nanotechnology.

  • In the medical world, nanotechnology is also seen as a boon since these can help with creating what is called smart drugs. Compared to traditional drugs, this approach could help cure people faster and without the side effects. We also find that the research of nanotechnology in medicine is now focusing on areas like tissue regeneration, bone repair, immunity and even cures for such ailments like cancer, diabetes, and other life threatening diseases.

  • Compared to synthetic chemistry approach, nanotechnology provides an easy access for developing multifunctional agents for tumor-imaging and therapy- a "See and Treat" approach.

Limitations of Nanotechnology:
  • The development of nanotechnology can also bring adverse impact on certain markets, e. g., lowering of the value of oil and diamonds due to the possibility of developing alternative sources of energy that are more efficient and won't require the use of fossil fuels. This can also mean that since people can now develop products at the molecular level, diamonds will also lose its value since it can now be mass produced.

  • Atomic weapons can now be more accessible and made to be more powerful and more destructive. These can also become more accessible with nanotechnology.

  • Since these particles are very small, problems can actually arise from the inhalation of these minute particles, much like the problems a person gets from inhaling minute asbestos particles.

  • In drug formulation, reproducibility/stability from batch to batch, especially in large scale manufacturing could be problematic.

  • Desirable pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics profiles (in humans) of certain nanoparticles may be difficult to achieve on the basis of animal results. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the scientific community to have a serious look on a particular technology before recommending it for its use, especially in healthcare.


Keynote Forum

Stergios Logothetidis
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece/div>
keynote: Organic and printed Photovoltaics: Process and in-line optical monitoring
Biography:
Prof. Stergios Logothetidis is the Founder and Director of the Lab of Thin Films - Nanosystems & Nanometrology (LTFN, www.ltfn.gr) and the Center of Organic & Printed Electronics, at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece (AUTh). His research activity includes over 880 papers and review articles in international journals & conferences. He gave more than 150 invited talks and he is Editor of several books in Nanotechnologies, Nanomedicine and Organic Electronics. He coordinated and worked in more than 70 EU R&D projects in Nanotechnologies, Materials Science, Organic Electronics and Nanomedicine. He is director and founder of the Post-Graduate Program "Nanosciences & Nanotechnologies" of AUTh and Coordinator of the Thematic Research Network on Nanotechnologies and Nanobiotechnologies "NANONET" with >370 international members. Finally, he is organizer of the multi-event NANOTEXNOLOGY (www.nanotexnology.com) that combines two International Conferences, three International Summer Schools and one Exhibition on Nanotechnologies, Nanomedicine & Organic Electronics. He is founder and responsible of Hellenic Organic and Printed Electronic Association (HOPE-A) (www.hope-a.com) of more than 20 companies and 3 research institutes.

Abstract:
Organic and printed photovoltaics (OPVs) onto plastic substrates have attracted an enormous interest in the modern science & industry, due to their several advantages that include conformability to curved surfaces and potentiality for fabrication by low-cost production processes such as roll-to-roll (r2r) printing. One of the main factors that determines the achievement of high OPV efficiency is the optimization of the morphology of the photoactive layer, which is a blend of a polymer electron donor and a fullerene-based electron acceptor. Also, the optimization of the quality of the OPV printed nanomaterials (organic semiconductors, transparent electrodes, barrier nano-layers etc.) onto flexible polymer substrates is a prerequisite for the achievement of the required performance, efficiency and lifetime of OPVs that will enable their wide market exploitation.

In this presentation, we provide an overview of the latest advances on the fabrication of advanced nanomaterials for OPV applications by r2r printing methods, in combination with laser scribing (in both sheet-to-sheet and roll-to-roll configurations) of the different OPV layers (transparent electrodes, photoactive layers, metal electrodes). The methodology for the combination of the different printing and structuring techniques will enable the low-cost fabrication of OE devices for several consumer applications. Also, we present the novel methodology for the combination of in-line Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) working in the near infrared to visible and far ultraviolet spectral region and Raman Spectroscopy (RS) for the robust investigation of the optical properties, morphology and bonding structure of r2r printed OPVs. Finally, we demonstrate the potentiality of SE and RS to be used as standard tools for the in-line robust determination of the thickness, optical and structural properties and the quality of other thin films and nanolayers for many organic and printed electronics applications.

Keynote Forum

Istvan Halasz
PQ Corporation, USA
keynote: Combination of experiments and computer modeling for exploring fine structural details in amorphous silica and zeolites
Biography:
Si and O are among the most abundant elements in the universe and SiO2, also named as silica, is the most copious mineral in the Earth's crust. Thus, silica derivatives have been utilized from prehistoric times. Beyond ceramic, glass and construction applications, today's diverse utilizations include the manufacturing of cosmetics, paper, beer, rubber, polymers, gasoline to name but a few examples. Nano and sub-nano sized particles and pores play pivotal role in many silica applications, for which our company supplies material. Our task at the R&D center is to help to adjust material properties to the different needs. In this presentation I will show in a few examples how we combined various experimental techniques, from porosity tests through atomically resolved electron microscopy to solid state NMR and molecular spectroscopy, with force field and DFT (density functional theory) based model calculations to elucidate curious or only empirically explored material properties at the molecular level.

Abstract:
Istvan Halasz obtained Magna Cum Laude doctorate degree from the Lajos Kossuth University and the Academy of Sciences (HAS) in Hungary. In the Hungarian Hydrocarbon Institute he developed and scaled up efficient processes for pharmaceutical, fine chemical and petrochemical industries beside fundamental acid-base catalytic studies. Later in the Chemistry Institute of HAS and at USA universities he studied zeolite catalysis, high temperature superconductor synthesis, and catalytic fume abatement for automobile exhausts and stack gases. For the past 17 years he has investigated the properties of silicates at PQ R&D. Chaired the Philadelphia Catalysis Club; current president of North-East Corridor Zeolite association (NECZA); edited a book about recent catalytic applications of silica, authored 120+ book chapters, journal papers, and patents and held 80+ conference presentations.

Nanomedicine and Biomedical Engineering
Tissue Nanoengineering

Session Introduction

Reinhard H.H. Neubert
The Martin Luther University, Germany
Title: Colloidal Nano-sized Carrier Systems for the Dermal Drug Delivery
Biography:
Reinhard H.H. Neubert received his PhD from MLU, School of Pharmacy, Germany in the year 1978. Presently he s the Chairman of the Institute of Applied Dermatopharmaceutics at the MLU and he is appointed as expert witness of the German drug authorities since 1999 to present. He secured 28 patents in his research and author of many books. He is honoured with many awards and he delivered many international conference presentations.

Abstract:
Introduction: Human skin is an important target site for the application of drugs. The way of this application is of great importance in dermatopharmaceutics in order to minimize the stress and to avoid potential systemic side effects of the drugs. Apart from the physicochemical properties of the active itself, the type of formulation such as colloidal nano-sized carrier systems (CCS) as well as additives such as penetration enhancer molecules influences significantly the concentration-time profiles within the different skin layers. The challenge is getting the drugs and actives effectively transported into special skin layers and remaining them at the surface of the skin, respectively. CCS are promising alternatives to conventional vehicle systems because they are thermodynamically stable due to a very low interface tension and isotropic. The droplets of colloidal phase have the radii from 10 to 30 nm and appear to have a spherical form. Objectives: An overview is presented about physicochemical features of these modern colloidal systems as well as the methods to characterize these systems and shows their power in the delivery of cosmetic actives with insufficient penetration such as extremely hydrophilic actives (peptides) and extremely lipophilic drugs and cosmetic actives (tacrolimus, ceramides). Methods: The CCS were prepared using physiologically well accepted mild surfactants such as lecithin and alkylpolyglycosides. Light and neutron scattering, electron and polarisation microscopy were used to characterize the CCS. The penetration of the drugs from the CCS was studied using the Franz diffusion cell and skin under in vitro conditions. Using the extremely lipophilic drug tacrolimus it is shown how the penetration profiles can be controlled using CCS in order to realize the treatment of psoriasis. Furthermore, the penetration of such extremely rigid and lipopihilc cosmetitc actives such as ceramides into human skin could be realized by incorporation of a deuterated ceramide (CER NP) into the colloidal oily phase of different CCS. Discussion an Conclusion: The penetration of highly hydrophilic tetrapeptides was realized by incorporation into the aqueous colloidal phase of w/o CCS and by the application of effective enhancer molecules. In conclusion, o/w CCS are effective colloidal, nano-sized carrier systems for extremely lipophilic drugs actives such as tacrolimus and ceramides. On the other hand, w/o CCS can be used to optimize the penetration of hydrophilic actives such as peptides into human skin. Therefore, CCS are well-designed vehicles of choice for certain drugs and actives dependent on the purpose of the application as well on the physicochemical properties of the drugs and the actives.

Thomas Prevenslik
QED Radiations, China
Title: Disinfection of Ebola in the Developing World
Biography:
Thomas Prevenslik is a retired American living in Hong Kong and Berlin. He spent most of his career in the USA performing classical ANSYS computer simulations on optical telescopes at Owens-Illinois and nuclear reactors at Westinghouse. Because classical physics does not work at the nanoscale, he developed the theory of QED radiation based on quantum mechanics. By this theory, conservation of energy cannot proceed by temperature changes as the heat capacity of the atom vanishes. Instead, QED radiation is created that produces charge or is emitted to the surroundings. QED radiation is applicable to diverse areas of nanotechnology including cancer research, cosmology, and the instant topic of disinfection of the Ebola virus.

Abstract:
The Ebola virus is a worldwide concern. In the United States, Ebola disinfection includes electric powered hand-held systems that produce a blade-like light beam having an area of 50 mm x 500 mm. However, the protocol for Ebola disinfection in the U.S. is too complex and costly in the developing world requiring unavailable sources of electricity. In this regard, QED induced EM radiation from body heat in a hand-held nano-coated bowl called an Ebowla is proposed to provide the UV- C to inexpensively disinfect Ebola without the need for electricity. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics and EM for electromagnetic. In operation, the 80 mm diameter Ebowla provides a cylindrical beam of UV-C light from the body heat transferred to the nano-coating. But the temperature of the coating cannot increase as its heat capacity vanishes by quantum mechanics. Instead, QED induces the conversion of body heat to EM radiation, the wavelength of which is 2 nd, where, n and d are the refractive index and thickness of the coating. For example, QED induces the creation of UV- C radiation at 254 nm in a coating having n = 2 and d = 63.5 nm. Since the heat Q supplied by the hand is about 6 mW / cm2 , and since the minimum UV - C intensity necessary to destroy the Ebola virus is 0.4 mJ / cm2, the Ebowla moved in 1 second scans is more than capable of disinfecting patients of the Ebola virus.

Anand Gadre
University of California, USA
Title: Biomimetic Creation of Functionalized Polymeric Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Tissue Healing
Biography:
Anand Gadre graduated with his BS and MS degrees in Applied Physics from the University of Mumbai (India) and completed his doctorate (Ph.D.) in 2000 from the Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT), Mumbai, India. From 2001-2004 Anand worked as a post doctoral research associate in the University of Maryland (USA), Georgetown University at Washington DC and later worked as a Managing Scientist in Georgetown’s Nanoscience and Microtechnology laboratory (GNuLab). In 2004, Anand was appointed as an Assistant Professor of Nanobioscience at the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering in the State University of New York at Albany and later was promoted as an Associate Professor of Nanobioscience with tenure. While working at CNSE, Anand also achieved his Master in Business Management (MBA) degree from the State University of New York at Albany. In March 2011 Anand joined as the Director of a core Nanofabrication and Stem Cell Research facility in the University of California, Merced, where he is currently pursuing his research in Nanobiotechnology. Anand is an active researcher and has published several peer-reviewed papers, co-authored book chapters, served as a referee for various journals and has delivered lectures at national/international conferences.

Abstract:
Structural bone-grafting surgeries have been widely used to repair, stabilize, or replace bone dysfunctioncaused by trauma, tumor resection, pathological degeneration, and congenital deformations. The mostcommonly used clinical bone grafts include autograft, allograft, and synthetic materials, yet autograft involves asecond surgical site and results in complications in 20% of patients, and the supply of allograft and syntheticbone substitutes such as demineralized bone matrix (DBM) may be inadequate and/or limited in regenerativehealing ability. There is currently an unmet need for an optimal biomaterial that can substitute for autograftbone or serve as a temporary matrix that can induce regeneration of native bone at implant sites. Developingscaffolds that mimic the architecture of bone tissue at the nanoscale level is one of the major focuses in thefield of tissue engineering and parallels the physical properties of bone tissue in the categories of mechanicalstrength, pore size, porosity, hardness, and overall three-dimensional (3D) architecture. Our specific objectiveis to design 3D synthetic biodegradable scaffolds comprising electrospun nanofibers that will not only beosteoconductive but also contain porosity for bone cell ingrowth enhanced with mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) and a sufficient amount of bioactive ingredients such as DBM that would serveas a more conducive framework for cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Our central hypothesis isthat the MSCs can migrate inside the functionalized 3D nanoscaffold to produce abundant extracellular matrix anddifferentiate into bone cell lineages, and that incorporation of DBM into the network of nanofibers will enhance osteogenesis and bone formation. The rationale for the proposed research is that if such complex constructs can mimic the nativein vivo microenvironment, they could provide a promising nanotechnology based surgical tool for bone tissue engineering directed atorthopedic and bone tissue clinical applications.

Varvara Karagkiozaki
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Title: Nanomedicine Highlights in Atherosclerosis Treatment
Biography:
Dr. Karagkiozaki Varvara is a Specialist Cardiologist that holds a BSc in medicine from the Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece - AUTh (1998). She received an MSc diploma with distinction of excellence (2007) after attendance of two years interdisciplinary Postgraduate Program “Nanosciences & Nanotechnologies” of AUTH, focusing on Nanomedicine field. She received her Nanomedical thesis from the Medical School of AUTh, with distinction of excellence (2009). Formerly she had been working as an Honored Clinical Fellow in Congenital Cardiac Unit at University Hospital of Southampton in United Kingdom. She is the Head of Nanomedicine Group of LTFN (Lab of Thin Films - Nanosystems & Nanometrology, AUTh, http://ltfn.physics.auth.gr/) and a member of European, American, and International Nanomedicine societies. She is also a member of the Scientific Board of North Greek Society of Atherosclerosis. She received a scholarship from the North Greek Society of Atherosclerosis and research awards from Greek Cardiology and Atherosclerosis Societies. She had numerous invited talks, oral and poster presentations in European and International Nanomedical, Nanotechnology, and Cardiology Conferences. She published several academic research papers in peer reviewed journals and chapters on Nanomedicine issues. She gave lectures at Nanomedicine Summer Schools (ISSON9, ISSON10 and ISSON11) and at N&N Postgraduate Program of AUTh, during the period of 2010-2015. Finally, she is the Chair of the Organizing Committee of the Nanomedicine and Bioelectronics Workshops during the 7th, to 11th, International Conferences on Nanosciences & Nanotechnologies (N&N) (www.nanotexnology.com). Finally, she has successfully participated and executed various National and European R&D Projects in Nanomedicine field and she is the co-editor of the Book entitled 'Horizons in Clinical Nanomedicine' by Pan Stanford Publishers, 2015.

Abstract:
Atherosclerosis is a low-grade inflammatory disease and versatile tools and approaches have been applied for its effective treatment. It is characterized by endothelium dysfunction that leads through a cascade of events to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and arterial stenosis. Different types of cells and molecules participate in the process making more difficult to recognize the potential molecular targets within the plaques. Hence, the injured endothelium, platelet hyperactivity, macrophage-mediated processes, matrix modeling events, coagulation factors and dysregulated metabolic activities constitute the disease-specific targets. The rise of nanomedicine over the last decade has provided new types of polymeric nanosystems that have multifaceted advantages in drug delivery. They can be used for targeted delivery of lipophilic drugs and even insoluble ones, improved bioavailability, and enhanced stability of therapeutic agents against enzymatic degradation. Decorating the surface of nanoparticles with targeting molecules against biomarkers of the disease facilitates their specific delivery and accumulation within the pathological tissue. In this talk an overview of the recent advances in nanomedicine that has provided novel insights to the disease treatment will be given in line with different nanotechnology enabled approaches to advance the cardiovascular stents. Emphasis will be given on nanomedicine strategies to decorate stent surfaces with drug delivery Nanosystems to achieve a sustained and controllable drug release, minimizing stent complications.

Carlos Castro
The Ohio State University, USA
Title: Single cell studies of DNA origami nanodevices for biomedical applications
Biography:
Dr. Carlos Castro is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at The Ohio State University. He received his Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees from The Ohio State University in 2005 and obtained his PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2009 all in Mechanical Engineering. His doctoral research focused on measurement of the mechanical behavior of biological cells and molecules. He then pursued post-doctoral research at the Technische Universität München in Biophysics working in DNA nanotechnology. Since 2011, Dr. Castro has established a state-of-the-art lab for the design and fabrication of mechanical DNA nanodevices to probe the physical properties of molecular and cellular systems and was recently awarded a National Science Foundation Career Award.

Abstract:
Structural DNA nanotechnology has emerged as a highly promising approach to make devices for applications in cellular systems including drug delivery, studies of cell signaling, targeted delivery of ligands, and even intracellular molecular detection. These applications generally take advantage of the ability to precisely modify DNA nanostructures or nanodevices with chemical functionalities, including, small molecule drugs, proteins, and other biomolecules. Building on previous work, we have recently demonstrated a platform for delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and therapeutic nucleotides in a leukemia cell model. Specifically, we have demonstrated the ability to circumvent drug resistance in an acute myeloid leukemia model by delivering the drug via DNA nanostructures. In particular, DNA nanostructure delivery changes the mechanism of uptake of the drug from passive diffusion across the membrane to endocytosis of drug-loaded nanostructures, allowing the circumvention of membrane bound pumps that expel drug from the cell. We are currently expanding this system to include cell targeting via antibody functionalization in combination with delivery of small molecule drugs and therapeutic nucleotide oligomers.

Simeon K. Adesina
Howard University, USA
Title: Nanoparticle Fabrication for Drug Delivery and Targeting - Re-engineering Poly (lactide) for Dispersion Polymerization
Biography:
Dr. Simeon K. Adesina completed his Ph.D. at the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Howard University. He has published 7 articles in peer reviewed journals and several abstracts and conference proceedings. He has also been granted a patent with Professor Emmanuel Akala. He joined Howard University as Assistant Professor in January 2012.

Abstract:
Poly (lactide) (PLA) is one of the polymers approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in humans and is one of the commonly used polymers for the fabrication of nanoparticles for drug delivery. However, nanoparticle fabrication is limited to the dispersion of preformed polymers which makes it relatively difficult to attach targeting moieties to the surface of the particle and to introduce crosslinked networks. We have used the macromonomer method to prepare crosslinked, paclitaxel-loaded PLA-PEG (stealth) nanoparticles using free-radical dispersion polymerization. This approach allows us to modulate the properties of the polymer and also to avoid the use of surfactants usually employed for nanoparticle fabrication using the preformed polymer. The nanoparticles were optimized using statistical D-optimal mixture design. Confirmation of nanoparticle structure was by transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles were fully characterized. The release profile of the nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel as a model drug reveals that encapsulated drug is released over 168 hours. Cytotoxicity studies were carried out using the CellTiter®glo luminescent cell viability assay in breast cancer and ovarian cancer cell lines. The results of cytotoxicity studies show that the blank nanoparticle is biocompatible with no toxicity for the duration of the assay compared to medium-only treated controls. Furthermore, the paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticle formulation exhibit similar cytotoxicity compared to free drug in solution against the cancer cell lines tested. Intracellular localization of the nanoparticles by confocal microscopy using fluorescent-dye loaded nanoparticles demonstrated that the nanoparticles are rapidly internalized by MCF-7 cancer cells. Preliminary biodistribution studies in a tumor xenograft model also reveal nanoparticle accumulation in the tumor.

Mohamed El-Newehy
King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Title: Biomedical applications of electrospun polymer nanofibers: Drug delivery and antimicrobial activity
Biography:
Dr. El-Newehy has completed his PhD from Tanta University, Egypt and postdoctoral studies from Pisa University, Italy and Yamagata University, Japan. He is Associate Professor at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. He has published more than 65 papers in reputed journals (h-index 15) and has been serving as an editorial board member of three international journals. He was a visiting professor at Donghua University, China and at Chonbuk National University, South Korea. Moreover, he was a research scholar at Virginia Commonwealth University, USA. His research interests; polymer synthesis and characterization, antimicrobial polymers, drug delivery and controlled-release, electrospinning, and RAFT polymerization.

Abstract:
Electrospinning is widely accepted as a technique to fabricate submicron polymer fibers, where high voltage is used to create an electrically charged jet of polymer solution from the needle. Electrospinning technique is being used to an increasing extent to produce ultra-thin nanofibers from a wide range of polymer materials. The remarkable high surface area-to-volume ratio, small diameter, and high porosity make electrospun nanofibers highly attractive to different applications. In the last few years, polymer nanofibers have received much attention due to their small diameter, which mimics the topology of extra-cellular matrix present in the human body, and hence are used as scaffolds in tissue engineering. Electrospun nanofibers have become promising materials for many biomedical applications such as wound dressing, drug delivery, and scaffold for tissue engineering. The design and fabrication of multi-functional, nanofibrous polymeric materials can impact human health. Multi-functionality can include biocompatibility, controlled drug release, controlled porosity, and controlled biodegradation. Applications of particular interest include hydrogel bandages for wound care and scaffolding for tissue and organ regeneration. Rapid solvent evaporation during electrospinning due to high fiber surface area offers interesting opportunities to freeze in novel morphologies and in turn control properties such as release rates of incorporated pharmaceuticals. Blends of two or more polymers prepared by electrospinning of multi-component polymer solutions is expected to offer unprecedented control of physical properties, water management, and drug release profiles.

Mona Hassan Aburahma
Cairo University, Egypt
Title: Exploring the capability of employing self-assembling unsaturated fatty acid nano-vesicles in drug delivery field
Biography:
Mona Hassan Aburahma has completed her PhD in Pharmaceutics from the Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University. Her main research interest is nano-particulate drug delivery systems. She has published more than 15 scientific papers in reputed international journals and has been serving as an active peer reviewer for different journals. She has also participated as speaker or poster presenter in different conferences and scientific meetings.

Abstract:
It has been reported that unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid and linoleic acid have the capability of forming closed lipid bilayers nano-vesicles in the aqueous environment. These unsaturated fatty acid vesicles are formed due to the interaction between the non-ionized fatty acids and their ionized species (the negatively charged soap). The formation of fatty acid vesicles is restricted to a quite narrow pH range (7–9), where nearly half of the carboxylic groups are ionized while the other remaining half is non-ionized. Applications of fatty acid vesicles in the field of drug delivery are very limited mainly due to concerns regarding the poor colloidal stability of these vesicles. Accordingly, this presentation aims at discussing some the properties of unsaturated fatty acid vesicles and approaches to improve their stability in order to utilize them in the drug delivery field.

Siham M. El-Shenawy
National Research Centre, Egypt
Title: Toxicological and Pharmacological Assessment of Gold Nanorods in Normal Rats
Biography:
Siham Mostafa Ali El-Shenawy graduated M.B.B.Ch in Faculty of Medicine AL-Azhar University, Egypt in 1984. She obtained her M.D.in clinical toxicology, faculty of medicine Ain- Shams University, Egypt in 1999. In 1999, El-Shenawy upgrade to researcher in pharmacology in pharmacological department in NRC and she work as secretary council of the pharmacology department in NRC from 2000 up till now and co-supervise in health- assurance of out clinic patient in NRC from 2002 up till now. She did postdoctoral studies in field of pharmacology and toxicology and she upgrade to assistant professor of pharmacology in 2004. She obtained the scientific promotion award of NRC in medical science and its application in field of pharmacology in 2005. El-Shenawy is a member of 5 scientific societies and 6 scientific committees and councils and member of 12 scientific projects and assistant principal investigator one project. She was registered to two patents in 2006 and 2010. She attended more than 25 conferences.

Abstract:
The acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity of pegylated gold nanorods (PEG-gold NRs) in Wistar rats of both sex were investigated by three routes of administration (intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutanous (SC). In the acute toxicity study; PEG-gold NRs were injected once in three different routes [IV, IM and SC injections], blood and tissue samples were collected after 14 days. In the subchronic and chronic studies; PEG-gold NRs were injected via IV, IM and SC, at 0.225, 0.45 and 0.9 mg/kg, once daily for 5 consecutive days, followed by a 23-day recovery period, for three and six month in the subchronic and chronic toxicity studies, respectively. Hematology, urinalysis, biochemical and histopathological examinations were conducted at the end of each study. Acute toxicity showed significant decrease in serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels after single IV, IM and SC injection of PEG-gold NRs, while serum creatinine was significantly increased after IV and IM injection. Subchronic results revealed significant decrease in serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels. Chronic study showed significant decrease in serum triglycerides, sodium levels, total leukocytes count, with significant increase in serum creatinine after IV injection. While IM injection resulted in significant decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, cholesterol, and sodium levels, total leukocytes count. SC injection resulted significant decrease in serum triglycerides, glucose , some electrolytes, red blood cell count with increased in creatinine, hematocrit. It concluded that PEG-gold NRs at the three doses used is apparently safe since no serious signs of toxicity were detected. IM and SC routes of injection were irritating, so we recommend the IV route of injection.

Mosab Arafat
Al Ain University of Science and Technology, UAE
Title: The application of nanotechnology on drug delivery systems
Biography:
Mosab Arafat from New Zealand is a licensed pharmacist who obtained his Doctoral Degree (PhD) in nanomedicines from School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, New Zealand. His research work interests involved the application of nanotechnology on oral drug delivery system to develop and characterize a nanoformulation of a protein like drug molecules such as insulin for oral administration. Dr Mosab Arafat has developed, improved and formulated a novel oral nanoformulation of the broad-spectrum antibiotic, cephalosporin. He succeeded to increase the intestinal absorption of this antibiotic from 1 to 20 times after been given by mouth instead of injection. He has also applied the advanced in biotechnology to control the release of cardiovascular drug, Diltizem-HCl from 3 to 12 hours inside the human body by using polymers. His novel nanoformulations were tested on both animals and humans. Dr Arafat has lately moved to UAE and currently he is an Assistant Professor in Pharmaceutical Technology and faculty member of the College of Pharmacy at Al Ain University of Science and Technology, UAE. Dr Arafat was invited as research visitor at the University of Strathclyde, Scotland, UK in 2009, The University of Tokyo, Japan in 2011 and lately at the University of Warwick, England, UK in 2014. Dr Mosab Arafat is also working very closely with many pharmaceutical industries and provided consultancy services to several local/international pharmaceutical companies in UAE, Malaysia and New Zealand.

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to compare the oral bioavailability of drug encapsulated in nanoparticles with that of drug encapsulated in Microparticles and unencapsulated drug. Nanoparticles were prepared by the rotary film evaporation method. Particles were subjected to freeze-thaw cycles and size-reduced by applying sonication followed by extrusions through a polycarbonate membrane (100 nm pore size). Microparticles were prepared in the same way as nanoparticles but without extrusions through a polycarbonate membrane. In the animal study, male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups (n = 6). One group was administered a single intravenous injection of drug and the other three groups were administered a single oral dose of drug as an aqueous solution or nanopartilces or microparticles. Blood samples were collected and analysed. The oral bioavailabilities of drug administered in nanoparticles and microparticles were found to be 22.6 and 11.6 % respectively compared to 1.53 % for drug administered in aqueous solution. This indicates a higher absorption of drug from nanoparticles and then microparticles than from aqueous solution. In conclusion, encapsulation of drug in nanoparticles increases the oral bioavailability of drug compared to encapsulated in microparticles or unencapsulated drug.

Yon Rojanasakul
West Virginia University, USA
Title: Carbon Nanomaterials and Cancer Stem Cells
Biography:
Dr. Rojanasakul is Distinguished Professor and Director of Allen Lung Cancer Program at West Virginia University Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center. His research is in the areas of biomedical nanotechnology andcancer therapeutics. He received his Ph.D. in pharmaceutical sciences fromthe University of Wisconsin,Madison, USA in 1989. He has published more than 200 peer-reviewed research articles in reputable journals and has served on several editorial boards and grant review panels for various journals and grant funding agencies. He is a principal investigator of several nanotechnology grants supported by the U.S. National Institutes of Health and National Science Foundation.

Abstract:
Carbon nanomaterials including carbon nanotubes (CNT) have increasing been used for a variety of commercial and biomedical applications. Cancer stem cells (CSC) are cancer cells with stem cell properties, i.e. they can self-renew and drive tumorigenesis. These cells have also been attributed to chemotherapy resistance and relapseof cancers, which is the major cause of cancer death. The relationship between CSC and CNT is not known andis the subject of this investigation. We have recently demonstrated that certain forms of CNT can induce malignant transformation of human lung cells and cause tumor formation in animals. The transformed cells exhibited anchorage-independent cell growth, loss of contact inhibition, evasion of apoptosis, and increased cell invasion, all of which are characteristics of cancer cells. Because of theirhigh capacity of self-renewal and malignancy, we hypothesized that CNT may induce CSC that drive CNT carcinogenesis. Using chronic exposure and xenograft transplantation models, we have demonstrated for the first time that both single and multi-walled CNTcan interact with human lung epithelial cells to induce CSC which have the propensity to form solid tumors in animals. These cells exhibit stem cell phenotypes, including self-renewal,regeneration, andexpression of pluripotent stem cell markers.We have also identified specific cell surface markers for CNT-induced CSC that can be used for early detection and risk assessment of CNT carcinogenesis. The knowledge gained from this study may aid in the development of safe nanomaterials and in the diagnosis and treatment ofCNT-related lung cancer.

Mukhles Sowwan
Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Japan
Title: Nanoparticles by Design for Nanotechnology and Biomedical Applications
Biography:
Prof. Mukhles Sowwan is the Director of the Nanoparticle by Design Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) – Japan a visiting professor at SLAC national Accelerator Laboratory-CA-USA. He is the recipient of the AL-Marshak lectureship award (2010) to recognize distinguished physicists form the American Physical society. His work on the design and fabrication of nanoparticles for particular applications is worldwide recognized. For example,read the Nanotechnology-Now news article “ Build-a-Nanoparticles ” http://www.nanotech-now.com/news.cgi?story_id=48488, ,thehealthcanal new article “ OIST new nanoparticle method” http://www.healthcanal.com/medical-breakthroughs/58787-oist-patents-new-nanoparticle-method.html , and the ScienceDaily news article “ Creating complex nanoparticles in one easy step” http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/02/140226074823.htm

Abstract:
In recent years, progress in nanomaterials synthesis has made it possible to mix two or more different materials to obtain binary, ternary and multicomponent hybrid nanoparticles. Thus, different functionalities can be combined in one single nanoparticle, and enhanced properties can even be realized due to the coupling between the different components (optical, magnetic,etc) .However, to gain control over the size, morphology and position of each component in the hybrid nanoparticles complicated multistep procedures that include nucleation and growth of a second and even a third material on a single component seed nanoparticle are usually required. Herein, I will talk about the design and synthesis of multicomponent hybrid nanoparticles for nanotechnology and bio-medical applications.

Monrudee Liangruksa
National Science and Technology Development Agency, Thailand
Title: An elastic model of DNA’s deformation subjected to mechanical stress - An implication in designing a DNA-based functional nanodevice
Biography:
Dr. Monrudee Liangruksa is now a researcher at National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC). She has completed her PhD in Engineering Mechanics from Virginia Tech, USA, in 2011. After completing her doctorate, she has started working at Nanoscale Simulation Laboratory, NANOTEC. Her research interests include nanomechanics and applied physics (focusing on thermal applications), i.e., nanoscale thermal transport, magnetic fluid hyperthermia for cancer treatment, thermoelectrics, etc.

Abstract:
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) possesses the ability to alter its conformation (deformation) in response to stresses. In the case that DNA is mistakenly structured or packed, it can lead to diseases or deformities such as Alzheimer’s disease, and perhaps even infectious diseases. The resulting deformation can facilitate or create local sites of strand separation for a variety of regulatory processes and the initiation of transcription of DNAs. Thus the investigation of the DNA elasticity and stability is necessary. We propose to study the mechanics of a DNA molecule under mechanical stress within the framework of Kirchhoff’s rod model. The problem is solved by perturbation method to find equilibrium configurations of DNA and the different unstable modes that can be excited in different regions in regards to stress. The results show that DNA overwinds under tension of ~ 35 pN above that it unwinds corresponding to the previous study in literature. It also suggests that the helical structure is stable under compression less than 493 pN, above that it is unstable. Moreover, the critical values of the parameters that lead to the instability are reported. This analytical study of elasticity of DNA could be a groundwork leading to better understandings of the influence of its deformation on biological processes in living cells with engineering implications in designing a DNA- based functional nanodevice.

Chuangang You
2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, China
Title: Functionalized collagen-chitosan dermal equivalent combined with silver nanoparticles for full-thickness skin regeneration with inhibited scarring
Biography:


Abstract:
Scar inhibition of dermal equivalent is one of the key issues for treatment of full thickness skin defects. To yield a nanoparticles functionalized matrix for skin regeneration with inhibited scarring, collagen-chitosan dermal equivalent was combined with nanosilver which could induce suppression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) pathway. The Nanosilver/collagen-chitosan (NACS) functioned as a reservoir for the incorporated silver nanoparticles, enabling a prolonged particles release. The seeded fibroblasts in the NACS showed good viability, internalized the nanosilver effectively and suppressed TGF-β1 expression constantly until 14 d. Application of the NACS on the full-thickness skin defects of pig backs confirmed the in vivo inhibition of TGF--β1 expression by immunohistochemistry, real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting during 30d post-surgery. The levels of other scar-related factors such as collagen type I, collagen type III and α-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) were also down-regulated. Our study reflects the latest paradigm of tissue engineering by incorporating the emerging nanoparticles. The 3-D scaffolding materials for silver delivery may have general implications in generation of bioactive matrix as well.

Jean-Sebastien Silvestre
Paris Cardiovascular Research Center-Inserm, France
Title: Inflammation and post-ischemic cardiac remodeling, towards a therapeutic opportunity?
Biography:
Dr. Jean-Sébastien Silvestre, PhD, is a French biologist and physiologist. He got his PhD in 1998, and, from 1999 to 2007, he was assistant professor at Paris-Diderot University and an honorary member of the Institut Universitaire de France. Since 2008, he is research director at Institut Nationale de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (Inserm) and head of team 6, “regenerative therapies for cardiac and vascular diseases” at the Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, Inserm UMRS 970 (Paris, France). His central interest lies in cardiovascular physiology, and the role of vascular growth and remodeling in ischemic diseases. He has coauthored more than 100 published articles deciphering the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in post-ischemic revascularization and tissue regeneration.

Abstract:
Acute thrombotic obstruction of the blood flow in coronary arteries precipitatesmyocardial infarction (MI) with deleterious consequences on heart function. The mainstay of treatment involves rapid restoration of a patent coronary artery either mechanically or through thrombolytic and anti-platelet therapies, and administration of agents that reduce oxygen consumption and unload the heart muscle. Still, the clinical and social burden of ischemic heart disease is unacceptably high. Thus, efforts are being directed towards targeting other pathophysiological pathways, particularly those involved in post-ischemic cardiac remodeling. The immune system becomes activated in response to myocardial damage. Few hours after the ischemic insult, neutrophils are actively recruited into the ischemic tissue and contribute to tissue inflammation and cardiovascular injury. The wave of neutrophil infiltration is followed by the mobilization and recruitment of pathogenic Ly6Chi andprotective Ly6Clo monocytes (Silvestre JS et al, Physiol Rev, 2013). We recently showed that adaptive immunity also participates to the homeostasis of ischemic cardiac tissue. Indeed, after acute MI in mice, mature B lymphocytes selectively produce Ccl7 and induce Ly6Chimonocyte mobilization and recruitment to the heart, leading to enhanced tissue injury and deterioration of myocardial function. Genetic (Baff receptor deficiency) or antibody-mediated (CD20- or Baff-specific antibody) depletion of mature B lymphocytes impeded Ccl7 production and monocyte mobilization, limited myocardial injury and improved heart function. These effects were recapitulated in mice with B cell-selective Ccl7 deficiency. We also showed that high circulating concentrations of Ccl7 and BAFF in patients with acute MI predict increased risk of death or recurrent MI (Zouggari Y et al, Nat Med, 2013). Our work identifies a crucial interaction between mature B lymphocytes and monocytes after acute MI and identifies new therapeutic targets for acute MI.

Nina Attik
LMI-CNRS, France
Title: Time-Lapse Imaging of Cell Behavior as an accurate and a sensitive method for toxicity evaluation of dental nano-composites
Biography:
Nina Attik has completed her PhD (European PhD) with high honors from Nancy University (school of medecine) and postdoctoral studies from Lyon University (Dental school). Winner of the Support Program for the Creation of Innovative Companies in the Mediterranean (PACEIM). She has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals and she has reviewed many original articles and literature reviews. She has participated as speaker in different conferences and meetings (national and international). She had also conducted many research European projects and manages many laboratory budgets.

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity effects of two dental nano-composites with similar chemical composition used for direct restoration (namely A and B) by 3-dimensional Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) time-lapse imaging. Confocal imaging was performed on cultured human HGF cells after staining using Live/Dead®. Image analysis showed a higher mortality rate in the presence of composite A than composite B, viability rate deceased in a time-dependent manner during the 5 hours of exposure. Morphological alterations were associated with toxic effects; cells were enlarged and more rounded in the presence of composite A as shown by F-actin and cell nuclei staining. Alamar blue assay was used to confirm composites active potential in cell metabolism after the same incubation period. Composite B was significantly better tolerated than composite Aat all investigated end-points and all time points. The finding suggested that the CLSM method employed for composites effect assessment was sufficiently sensitive to differentiate biocompatibility behavior of two nano-composites based on similar methacrylate monomers.

Aisha Mohamed Samir
Cairo University, Egypt
Title: Nanotechnology in Occupational Medicine
Biography:


Abstract:
Nanotechnology represents a collection of capabilities, processes, and techniques aimed at the manipulation and engineering of matter at the nanoscale. Domestic and international investments in nanotechnology research and development, particularly as the global economy are rising. Engineered nano-materials produced and handled in industrial and academic settings present potentially new challenges to understanding, predicting, and managing potential health risks to workers, consumers, and the environment. For workers handling nano-materials, inhalation of nanoparticles is the route of occupational exposure harboring the most concern followed by dermal exposure and ingestion. The main concern about exposure to engineered nanoparticles is that due to their novel size, shape and physiochemical characteristics, they may exert unpredictable biological effects once they enter the human body. Preliminary researches indicate that in some cases nano-particulate matter may be more toxic than other forms of the same or similar material. The term prevention comprises all measures directed at minimizing the risk associated with a specific exposure, the early detection through medical surveillance of adverse health effects resulting from such an exposure and the treatment of diseases. Application of the classical tools of occupational medicine and industrial hygiene is hampered by the lack of consensus guidelines for medical monitoring, exposure assessment, and exposure control. So, the problem of occupational exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) has raised many questions which remain unanswered till today. This review aims at discussing some general features of ENMs (Engineered nano-materials), how a worker might be exposed to ENMs, some potential health effects, and approaches to minimize exposure and toxicity.

Nanomedical Approaches for Cancer Diagnosis

Session Introduction

Ravindra K. Pandey
Roswell Park Cancer Institute, USA
Title: Multifunctional nanoplatforms for cancer-imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT)
Biography:
Prof. Pandey completed his Ph. D. from India, and postdoctoral studies from U. C. Davis and Cardiff University, U. K. Currently, he is associated with RPCI, Buffalo, in the capacity of Distinguished Professor and Director, Pharmaceutical Chemistry. He has published more than 275 papers (including book chapters and review articles), 60 patents (approved/submitted) and has been serving as an editorial board member in several scientific journals. He has received several National and International Awards as well as Inventor of the year Awards. Dr. Pandey has organized a large number of National and International Symposiums and delivered Plenary lectures and invited talks in various National and International conferences and research organizations.

Abstract:
Most of the photosensitizers (PS) investigated and/or being used to date in photodynamic therapy (PDT) are highly fluorescent. This property has been used to guide surgical interventions and PDT. Unfortunately, most of the photosensitizers exhibit small Stokes shift(s) between the long-wavelength absorption and emission and are therefore not desirable candidates for fluorescence imaging of cancer. Conversely, certain highly efficient cyanine dye–based fluorophores (non-porphyrin based compounds) generally do not localize within tumors efficiently, but require an additional moiety or process to provide selectivity, such as attachment of a peptide2 or other moieties that bind to a targeted receptor(s) known for high expression in tumors. Promising clinical-PDT results suggest that certain porphyrin-based photosensitizers preferentially accumulate within a wide range of malignancies compared to their normal tissue surroundings. This characteristic has been used in designing bi- and multifunctional agents in which the PS also helps in delivering the desired imaging agent(s) to tumors. For quite some time, one of the objectives of our laboratory has been to develop agents that can be used concurrently detect tumors (via PET, MRI and/or fluorescence) and treat them (with PDT). One of our approaches involves the synthesis, characterization and pre-clinical validation (including in vivo toxicity) of novel conjugates of tumor-avid PS linked to unique near infrared (NIR) fluorescent dyes or the long half-life PET agent labeled with 124I. In another approach, imaging and therapeutic monomers are post-loaded onto biocompatible PAA nanoparticles. Preliminary work shows that some of the multifunctional agents developed in our laboratory provide promising in vivo tumor selectivity while maintaining PDT efficacy. This “See and Treat” approach enhances the scope of image guided therapy. The synthesis and comparative tumor-imaging and therapeutic potential of the monomers and the corresponding multifunctional nanoplatforms will be discussed.

Jamboor K. Vishwanatha
University of North Texas Health Science Center, USA
Title: Targeted delivery of sustained release polymeric nanoparticles for cancer therapy
Biography:
Dr. Vishwanatha is a Special Assistant to the Provost for the Center for Diversity and International Programs, Professor of Molecular and Medical Genetics, Director of the Texas Center for Health Disparities, and Director of the Institute for Cancer Research at the University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth. He received his Ph.D. in biological sciences from the University of South Carolina in 1983. Dr. Vishwanatha’s research is in cancer molecular biology, experimental therapeutics and nanotechnology. His laboratory is investigating genetic markers that predict development of aggressive prostate and breast cancers, and nanotechnology-based therapies for breast and prostate cancers.

Abstract:
Among the potent anti-cancer agents, curcumin has been found to be very efficacious against various cancer cells. Despite multiple medicinal benefits of curcumin, poor water solubility, poor physiochemical properties and low bioavailability continue to pose major challenges in developing a formulation for clinical efficacy. To improve its potential application in the clinical area, we formulated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. The PLGA nanoparticles were formulated using solid-oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation method and then characterized for percent yield, encapsulation efficiency, surface morphology, particle size, drug distribution within nanoparticles and drug polymer interaction. Our studies showed the successful formation of smooth and spherical curcumin loaded PLGA nanoparticles with a high percent yield of about 92.01±0.13% and an encapsulation efficiency of 90.88±0.14%. The mean particle size of the nanoparticles was found to be 145nm. The in vitro drug release profile showed 55-60% drug release from the nanoparticles over a period of 24 hours with continued sustained release over a period of 8 days. Exposure to curcumin loaded nanoparticles resulted in reduced cell viability of cancer cells compared to normal cells. We used a novel non-covalent insertion of a homo-bifunctional spacer for targeted delivery of curcumin to various cancer cells. Functionalized nanoparticles for antibody/targeting agent conjugation was prepared using a cross-linking ligand, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3), which has reactive carboxyl group to conjugate efficiently to the primary amino groups of the targeting agents. In our studies, we demonstrated successful conjugation of antibodies, Annexin A2 or prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), to curcumin loaded PLGA nanoparticles for targeting to prostate and breast cancer cells. The percent antibody attachment to PLGA nanoparticles was found to be 92.8%. Efficient intra-cellular uptake of the targeted nanoparticles was observed in the cancer cells. These results have emphasized the potential of our multifunctional curcumin nanoparticles to improve the clinical efficacy of curcumin therapy in patients with cancer.

Mandip Singh Sachdeva
Florida A&M University, USA
Title: Overcoming the Tumor Barriers in Lung Cancer With Nanotechnology Based Approaches
Biography:
Dr. Mandip Singh Sachdeva got his MSc and PhD of Biopharmaceutics from Dalhousie University, Canada respectively in1986 and 1989.He then worked with SynPhar laboratories in Edmonton, Canada as a Group Leader, Drug Targeting from 1989-1993 and then moved to academia as an Assistant Professor, Pharmaceutics at Florida A&M university in 1993 and got promoted to Full Professor in 2002. Presently he is the Section Leader of Pharmaceutics at Florida A&M and has won many honors and awards such as Novapharm Award for the year 1989-1990 for excellence in Biopharmaceutics, AAPS Fellow award 2007, Davis Productivity Award from the State of Florida, 2011, Who’s Who in America 2008 and 2009, Research Excellence Award from FAMU, 2011. He was also selected as a Fulbright Fellow for the year 2014-2015. He has published more than 120 articles and papers in Biopharmaceutics and has five issued patents. He is member for Controlled Release Society (CRS), American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS), American Association of Cancer Research (AACR), Society of Toxicology (SOT) and Society of Investigative Dermatology. Further he is the chair of the Dermatopharmaceutics Focus group at AAPS for the year 2014-2016.

Abstract:
Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths (29% of all cancer deaths) in USA. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85 % of all lung cancers. Poor survival rates in NSCLC patients are due to limited efficiency of systemic or oral chemotherapy and associated side effects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) over-expression (61% to 92% of NSCLC) is associated with poor survival. Recently, new approaches in the treatment of lung cancer with novel drugs that selectively inhibit tumor blood supply thus controlling cancer cell survival, proliferation and/or metastasis in combination with conventional anticancer or antiangiogenic drugs have generated clinical interest. DIM-C-pPhC6H5 (DIM-P), a c-substituted diindolylmethanes is novel anti-cancer agent. One of the objectives in my laboratory is to formulate tumor homing pegylated CREKA peptide coated nanolipidcarriers of DIM-P (PCNCs-D) and investigate its antitumor activity and antiangiogenic potential for treatment of lung cancer. Further, using theranostics, another objective in my studies is to track the nanoparticles in the lung tumors and to evaluate various techniques to overcome the tumor barriers so that nanoparticles with their payloads can penetrate into solid lung tumors.

Zbigniew Kolacinski
Lodz University of Technology, Poland
Title: Ferro-fluids for selective thermal ablation of cancer cells
Biography:
Prof. Dr. Zbigniew Kolacinski has completed PhD, DSc from Lodz University of Technology and received the Professor Title from the President of Poland. He is the leader of the Plasma Technology Group and the author or co-author of more than 250 papers presented at conferences and published in scientific journals. His book “Thermodynamics of short arc plasma” was edited in English and Chinese. He is the member of “High Power Section” and “Plasma Chemistry” of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Prof. Kolacinski is currently working on hyper thermal selective destruction of cancer cells.

Abstract:
Electromagnetic (EM) radiation has been widely researched as a tool for medical diagnosis and treatment, including heating magnetic nanoparticles and ferro-fluids for non-invasive thermal ablation of cancer cells. Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are capable of absorbing the EM radiation due to van Hove singularities. Different types of electromagnetic waves have been used so far. For thermal ablation of cancer cells the used radio frequency (RF) should fall within the industrial, scientific and medical scope as well as the interaction with human body should be limited to minimum. Generally, the application of RF energy fields for medical treatment is justified by deep tissue penetration. In the talk we will present the results of making highly Fe doped CNTs (Fe-CNTs) as the carriers creating magnetic fluid. We propose the excessive catalyst injection method using electrical furnace and microwave plasma reactor. This way we are able to grow the Fe filled CNTs on a moving surface in continuous synthesis process. This allows producing uniform carpet of the Fe-CNTs carriers. Then we consider targeted therapies which can be effective if is possible to distinguish the difference between cancerous and healthy cell’s physiology. In the next stage the procedure of Fe-CNTs attachment to cancer cells is going to be developed. Methodology of producing addressed Fe-CNTs includes chemical and physical characterization, increasing the content of ferromagnetic material, and biochemical functionalization involving the attachment of the key addresses. In the present stage the results the RF heating of different samples of magnetic fluid containing Fe-CNTs will be presented.

Chris Binns
University of Leicester, UK
Title: Gas-Phase Synthesis of Core-Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles for Tumour Hyperthermia
Biography:
Prof. Chris Binns received his PhD at the University of Leicester in 1981. He spent two years working as a PDRA at synchrotron radiation sources in Stanford and Brookhaven before returning to the UK to take up a permanent position at the University of Leicester. Here he continued synchrotron radiation research on the SRS, the ESRF and Diamond. In the 1990s he started to conduct synchrotron experiments on nanoparticles and has since specialized in the gas-phase synthesis of and study of magnetic nanoparticles. Increasingly the research has been turning towards high-performance magnetic materials and more recently to medical applications.

Abstract:
Magnetic Nanoparticle Hyperthermia (MNH) is a promising treatment for cancer offering the possibility of a generic low morbidity therapy. Currently available Fe oxide nanoparticles, however, are unable to produce enough heat per gram to enable MNH to work without using it in combination with other treatments and also restrict it to certain types of cancer. The search is on for magnetic nanoparticles that have a much higher Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), which describes the power converted into heat per unit mass (W/g). This usually means having a pure Fe core within the nanoparticle, which also entails producing the nanoparticles as a core-shell structure so that the outer part is biocompatible and protects the metallic core. Gas-phase synthesis offers the possibility of producing core-shell nanoparticles in which there is independent control of the core size and shell thickness and flexible choice of materials in either. The problem of getting the gas-phase nanoparticles into a liquid suspension has been solved by co-depositing the gas-phase nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution and water vapour in Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) conditions. The talk will present the method and the SAR performance of core-shell nanoparticles produced this way. Due to the high magnetic moment of the nanoparticles synthesised by the new method they also have a high performance as MRI contrast enhancers. The new method even allows some control of the shape of the particles and the effect of this on MRI relaxivity will be presented.

Javad Nazarian
Washington DC George Washington University, USA
Title: Targeting and Real-Time Optical Imaging of Brainstem Gliomas Using Liposomal Nanocarriers
Biography:
Dr. Javad Nazarian is currently an investigator at the Center for Genetic Medicine in Children’s National Medical Center, Washington DC and as an assistant professor in Integrative Systems Biology at the George Washington University. He received his PhD from the George Washington University in Genetic in 2005. His dissertation research involved molecular profiling of neuromuscular junctions using laser capture microdissection. His postdoctoral research involved protein profiling of pediatric brainstem tumors. Since becoming a faculty, Dr. Nazarian’s laboratory has been involved in establishing in vivo models of brainstem gliomas as well as generating the molecular profile of the disease. These include proteomics, genomics, microRNA and mRNA profiles. His multidisciplinary team includes members from Neurosurgery, Neurology, Oncology and Research departments. The team’s ongoing research involves characterizing preclinical models of brainstem gliomas, developing nanoparticles-mediated strategies for specific targeting of tumor cells, and assessment of non-hormonal steroids for treatment of pediatric brain tumors.

Abstract:
We report the targeting and real-time optical imaging of brainstem tumors using liposomal nanocarriers. Patients with infiltrating brainstem gliomas (BSG) known as diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) have one of the poorest survival rates. Blood brain barrier (BBB) is the main obstacle in the delivery of drugs and contrast agents to DIPGs. Here, we demonstrate the specific delivery of liposomal nanoparticles containing Evans blue (nano-EB) to tumor in a murine model of BSG. Mice with brainstem tumors were tail vein injected with nano-EB and in vivo tumor enhancement was monitored by optical fluorescence imaging. Necropsy analysis conducted 24 hr post injection showed site-specific delivery of nano-EB to the tumor but not adjacent normal tissue. Immunohistochemical assays confirmed high grade tumor at the site of nano-EB accumulation. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of nano-EB for drug delivery and real-time, sensitive optical imaging of BSGs in vivo.

Vinod Labhasetwar
Lerner Research Institute, USA
Title: Biophysics of Cell Membrane Lipids in Cancer Drug Resistance: Implications for Drug Transport and Drug Delivery with Nanoparticles
Biography:
Vinod Labhasetwar, Ph.D., is a Professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH. He leads Cleveland Clinic’s Cancer NanoMedicine Program, a collaborative effort jointly sponsored by the Department of Biomedical Engineering and the Taussig Cancer Institute. Dr. Labhasetwar’s research focus is on a)cancer detection and treatments using surface engineered nanoparticles for drug and gene delivery, b)antioxidant enzyme delivery to the central nervous system to prevent reperfusion injury in stroke and to treat spinal cord injury, and c)vascular targeting of therapy to prevent post-angioplasty hyperplasia.His basic research interest is to understand the role of biophysics of cell membrane lipids in drug transport and nanoparticle uptake.His recent work involvesinvestigating epigenetic nanotherapy for treating drug resistant and metastatic cancers. He is the editor-in-chief of Drug Delivery and Translational Research, an official journal of the Controlled Release Society. He has published over 160 peer-reviewed articles and holds several U.S. and international patents; has received Distinguished Scientist and Innovator awards; and is a Fellow of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. He is the 2014 Thomson Reuters Highly Cited Researcher based on top 1% by citation.

Abstract:
Recent advances in membrane lipid research show the varied roles of lipids in regulating membrane P-glycoprotein function, membrane trafficking, apoptotic pathways, drug transport, and endocytic functions, particularly endocytosis, the primary mechanism of cellular uptake of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems. Since acquired drug resistance alters lipid biosynthesis, understanding the role of lipids in cell membrane biophysics and its effect on drug transport is critical for developing effective therapeutic and drug delivery approaches to overcoming drug resistance. We hypothesize that altered lipid synthesis/biophysical characteristics in resistant cell membrane may be linked to epigenetic mechanisms of drug resistance. Two different novel strategies are being investigated to overcome drug resistance: (a) modulating the biophysical properties of membrane lipids of resistant cells to facilitate drug transport and regain endocytic function and (b) developing effective nanoparticles based on their biophysical interactions with membrane lipids to enhance drug delivery and overcome drug resistance.

Nanobiotechnology

Session Introduction

Claudio Nicolini
University of Genova and Fondazione ELBA Nicolini, Italy
Title: Synchrotron diffraction of multilayered ls pga films after heating and cooling
Biography:
Claudio Nicolini.after serving as Adjunct Professor at the University of Bari, he moved for 17 years to the United States , of which he became citizen since 1974, and was at Brown University, MIT,BNL and Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, where he became Associate Professor of Pathology and then Professor and Chairman of the Biophysics in 1976. In 1985, he was called “Chiara Fama” Professor and Chair of Biophysics at the University of Genoa, in Italy until 2012 , where he was Director of the Biophysics Institute, the Department of Biophiscal M&O Sciences and Technologies and the Nanoworld Institute. From 1993 until now is Life President of the Fondazione ELBA Nicolini. He was Chief Editor of Cell Biophysics (USA) , Science and Technology Advisor to Italian Prime Minister Craxi, Member of the National Science and Technology Council upon Parliament election, Scientific Director Industrial Consortium CIREF, Founder and CTS President Technobiochip; President Polo National Bioelectronics , President Scientific Technological Park of Elba Island. On May 29 2008,was elected in Moscow as a Foreign Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and on 2010 Professors Honoris Causa of Biophysics and Nanobiotechnology at Moscow State University. From 1 November 2010 until October 31 2012 has been at Arizona State University (USA) and at Curie Paris University and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility.. Still now among the 100 Top Italian Scientists in all disciplines worldwide (H index >30). He received several awards and prizes and has authored more than 500 publications in international scientific journals (SCI), 38 patents (WPI) , 29 books and Series Editor in Bioelectronics (Plenum) and Nanobiotechnology (Pan Stanford). His main scientific activities concerned cancer research, biophysics and nanotechnology, pioneering world-wide chromatin structure-function, molecular bioelectronics and nanobiotechnology.

Abstract:
X-ray diffraction patterns of multilayered Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) film of penicillin G acylase (PGA) enzyme were acquired at the ID13 of Synchrotron Radiation at ESRF (Grenoble, France).As previously shown by GISAXS and AFM (Pechkova et al, J. Synchrotron Radiation 2009) the Langmuir- multilayered enzyme film appears quite reproducible for the PGA here utilized to monitor their diffraction and structural properties in comparison of those apparent in the same PGA after crystallization by classical methods. Our study do show indeed that the enzyme structures are becoming quite more organized due to the heating and cooling process, which leads to the establishment of long-range order and unique diffraction properties. The dramatic increase of long-range order in the LB multi-layered enzyme films after heating and cooling, made previously apparent by grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering using microbeam, is here confirmed by these synchrotron diffraction studies at the ID13 beamline, opening the way to bypass the bottleneck of protein crystallization for protein structure determination which is leaving still unsolved large part of important proteins , like the membrane ones.

Evgeniya Peshkova
University of Genova and Fondazione ELBA Nicolini, Italy
Title: Synchrotron diffraction of multilayered ls pga films after heating and cooling-II
Biography:
Evgeniya Peshkova (Eugenia Pechkova), born in Moscow, Russia, 24 May 1976, after taking her Doctoral degree in Chemistry at Moscow State Lomonosov University in 1998, enter the PhD course in Biophysics with the fellowship from Polo Nazionale Bioelettronica. Research contract award for protein crystallization, project for young investigator of University of Genova. After taking her PhD degree in Biophysics with the thesis entitled "Protein Crystallography By Thin Film Nanotechnology" at University of Genova in 2003, became firstly (2003-2006) Scientific Secretary of Fondazione EL.B.A. (Electronic Biotechnology Advanced) and then Scientific Director (2006-2008) and Principle Investigator of a big FIRB research grant on Organic Nanotecnology. In this context following a postdoctoral position she has acquired the scientific responsibility of the laboratory of Nanobiocrystallography at the Nanoworld Institute,University of Genoa. In 2007 she worked as a Visiting Scientist at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble both in Macromolecular crystallography group, Soft condensed matter and Nanofocusing group. Now is one of the PI of Radiation Damage BAG. She participated as invited speaker to the international conferences on Crystallography, Nanobiotechnology and Medicine and carried out stages at Harvard University; IBM at Almaden, Jefferson Cancer Center, Univ of Massachusetts Medical School and UCLA. From June 1, 2008 she has the permanent position of Assistant Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Genova Medical faculty. Author of 47 international scientific publications (SCI), 2 patents; and several textbooks.

Abstract:
X-ray diffraction patterns of multilayered Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) film of penicillin G acylase (PGA) enzyme were acquired at the ID13 of Synchrotron Radiation at ESRF (Grenoble, France).As previously shown by GISAXS and AFM (Pechkova et al, J. Synchrotron Radiation 2009) the Langmuir- multilayered enzyme film appears quite reproducible for the PGA here utilized to monitor their diffraction and structural properties in comparison of those apparent in the same PGA after crystallization by classical methods. Our study do show indeed that the enzyme structures are becoming quite more organized due to the heating and cooling process, which leads to the establishment of long-range order and unique diffraction properties. The dramatic increase of long-range order in the LB multi-layered enzyme films after heating and cooling, made previously apparent by grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering using microbeam, is here confirmed by these synchrotron diffraction studies at the ID13 beamline, opening the way to bypass the bottleneck of protein crystallization for protein structure determination which is leaving still unsolved large part of important proteins , like the membrane ones.

Nekane Guarrotxena
ICTP-CSIC, Madrid-Spain
Title: Multiplexed protein detection of SERS nanotags in a single-spot
Biography:
Dr. Nekane Guarrotxena is a PhD from the University of Complutense, Madrid-Spain and was post-doctoral research at ENSAM, Paris-France and University of ScienceII, Montpellier-France. She was Vice-Director of the Institute of Polymer Science and Technology (ICTP-CSIC) (2001- 2005) and visiting professor at University of California, Santa Barbara-USA and University of California, Irvine-USA (2008-20111). She is currently Research Scientist at ICTP-CSIC (Spain), Editorial Board member of some Materials Science and Chemistry journals and External Expertise Consultant on I+D+i Management and Policy for National and International Agencies. Her research interest focuses on the synthesis and assembly of hybrid nanomaterials, nanoplasmonics, and their uses in nanobiotechnology applications (bioimaging, drug delivery, therapy and biosensing).

Abstract:
In the nanobiotechnology arena, where the interaction of functional nanomaterials with biomolecules is a central topic, the scientists are faced with the challenging development of new multiple protein detection methods with high specificity and sensitivity. Thus far ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) has represented the most powerful clinical tool for protein detection. However, although of great versatility and sensitivity, ELISA lacks of multiplexing capabilities due to its colorimetric detection approach based on the broad spectral widths of absorption and emission spectra. The unique and highly strong adsorption and light scattering in the plasmon resonance wavelength regions enable to use metallic nanoparticles to explore optical based detection technologies. SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering), an ultrasensitive technique of Raman spectroscopy, which takes advantage of local field enhancements for molecules near metallic nanostructures, plays an increasingly important role in this research area. In fact, the combination of these features has been devoted to developing innovative approaches to obtain sensitivity enhancements, even down to single molecule detection. In this communication, we will disclose how one-spot simultaneous detection of multiple proteins can be efficiently achieved by using multiplexed SERS encoded nanoparticles consisting of plasmonic NPs each reporting unique Raman code and antibody-tagging entities.

M. Avalos-Borja
IPICyT, División de Materiales Avanzados, Mexico
Title: Synthesis, characterization and applications of metallic particles produced by biological agents
Biography:
Miguel Avalos Borja obtained his bachelor’s degree from the National Autonomous University in Mexico City and his Ph. D. from Stanford University in the field of Materials Science and Engineering. Crystallography and electron microscopy (either scanning or transmission) have been his areas of interests for many years. Routinely teaches the courses of Crystallography or Electron Microscopy at postgraduate level. Recently his interests also include the field of bionanotechnology. Presently he is in charge of a large electron microscopy facility in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. He is open to collaborations and can be contacted by email (miguel.avalos@ipicyt.edu.mx)

Abstract:
Nanobiotechnology is an active field of research in recent years. The interest in inorganic nanomaterials comes mainly from the fact that particles at nanoscale dimensions display a number of different properties relative to bulk material. For instance, gold nanoparticles exhibit very important catalytic properties whereas at greater sizes is one of the most unreactive materials. On the other hand, the synthesis of nanomaterials employing biological agents could be an excellent alternative instead of using conventional procedures that typically involve high temperature/pressure and the use of toxic precursors or reaction by-products. Recent developments on eco-friendly methods have rapidly evolved allowing the use of biological material to reduce metal ions and form nanoparticles at very low costs. The use of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, as well as other organisms such as plants has successfully produced nanoparticles, either in vivo or via extracts. Here, we present the production of mono-metallic (Au, Ag, Pt) and bi-metallic (Au-Ag) nanoparticles using aqueous plant extracts (Citrus paradisi, Camellia sinensis, etc.) and fungi (e.g. Neurospora crassa and es Botrytis cinerea) with very controlled dispersion. Adjustment of the synthesis parameters, such as temperature, pH, and incubation time, resulted in the formation of particles with very narrow size distributions. To determine their possible applications, these particles were tested on catalytic reactions, while different-shaped nanoparticles exhibited very promising SERS (surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy) properties.

Di Zhang
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Title: Bioinspired functional materials templated from nature materials
Biography:
Di Zhang has completed his PhD from Osaka University, Japan. He has been a professor of Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China since 1994. He has been the director of State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites and the director of Institute of Composite Materials at Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China since 2003. He has published more than 250 papers in reputed journals and one book on Morphology Genetic Materials. The research on Bioinspired functional materials has been reported by many famous scientific media widely in the world, including “Discovery Channel News”.

Abstract:
Biological materials naturally display an astonishing variety of sophisticated nanostructures that are difficult to obtain even with the most technologically advanced synthetic methodologies. Inspired from nature materials with nano and hierarchical structures, many functional materials are developed based on the templating synthesis method. This review will introduce the way to fabricate novel functional materials based on nature bio-structures with a great diversity of morphologies, in State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University in near five years. We focused on replicating the morphological characteristics and the functionality of a biological species (e.g. butterfly wings,leaf, agriculture castoff,). We change their original components into our desired materials with nano and original morphologies faithfully kept. Properties of the obtained materials are studied in details. Based on these results, we discuss the possibility of using these materials in energy harvesting, Plasmonics, splitting water, gas sensitive devices, et al. In addition, the fabrication method could be applied to other nature substrate template and inorganic systems that could eventually lead to the production of optical, magnetic. or electric devices or components as building blocks for nanoelectronic, magnetic, or photonic integrated systems. These bioinspired functional materials with improved performance characteristics are becoming increasing important, which will have great values on the development on structural function materials in the near future.

M. M. Alkaisi
University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Title: The role of materials and topography on biological cells behavior
Biography:
Alkaisi is a Principal Investigator and founding member of the MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Material and Nanotechnology. He is also the founder and coordinator of the MacDiarmid Institute BioNanoNetwork. He holds a full Professor position at the Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. He is a founding member of the Nanostructure Engineering Science and Technology NEST research group formed back in 1998 at Canterbury University and was the core group that introduced nanotechnology to New Zealand. Alkaisi is a member of the Editorial Board of Microelectronic Engineering,Member of theEditorial Board of Austin Journal of Nanomedicine& Nanotechnology. Alkaisi carried out his postgraduate studies in the UK where he received his MSc degree from Salford University in 1976 and PhD degree from Sheffield University in 1981 both in Electronic Engineering. His current research interest including, interactions of biological cells with surfaces and patterns.Surface texturing and modifications for Solar Cells, Development of nanoscale patterning including three dimensional Nanoimprint Lithography and soft lithography. He has over 120 refereed articles and holds two patents, has given a number of invited and plenary talks at international conferences on nanotechnology. Prof Alkaisi is a Member of the Royal Society of New Zealand (MRSNZ).

Abstract:
With the increasing developments of BioMEMs, tissue engineering and medical implant devices, understanding cell interactions with surfaces and materials is becoming very important. The micro and nano-environment surrounding the cell whether in vitro or in vivo play a significant role in cell growth and behavior. Furthermore, there are accumulating evidence that the physical forces imposed by topography influences tumor growth and spread. We have a unique capability of forming replicas of cells with nanoscale fidelity that can be scaled into typical cell culture platforms on biocompatible materials. I will be presenting the responses of cells interacting with lithographically defined patterns and bio-imprinted patterns with cell-like topography. Two types of cells will be investigated, Cancer cells and Muscle cells. This approach enables understand and separate the influence of topography and that of surface chemistry on cell behavior. To determine the effects of patterned substrates on the extent and alignment of differentiation C2C12 muscle cells were examined. Tumour invasion and cancer cell metastasis are both dangerous motility mechanisms for cancer proliferation throughout the body. Cells dissociating from the primary tumour microenvironment and adhering in an ectopic, secondary location require active control of the adhesion proteins and complexes. This work investigates the interaction of cancer cells with lithographically patterned surfaces and with bioimprined cell culture platforms. Biological changes in response to topography will also be presented. Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells were cultured on bioimprinted and patterned substrates to determine the effect of template substrates on cancer cell adhesion, morphology, and growth. Culture results on bioimprint substrates showed significant alignment to the bioimprinted regions, revealed by peeling away of the cultured cell monolayer during the shearing of staining and washing protocols. Further investigation showed increased cell size and different morphology for cells adhered on flat polymer regions compared to the bioimprinted regions. Cell adhesion and organization is also significant in non-cancerous cell lines and in vivo tissues. Morphology and organization influence cell differentiation and alignment efficiency. Cell morphology and differentiation characterization of C2C12 muscle cells was determined for cells cultured across four widely used cell culture substrates: tissue culture grade polystyrene [TCPS], glass, Permanox, and polydimethylsiloxane [PDMS]. Muscle cell differentiation into mature myofibrils was most efficient for cells grown to confluence on TCPS and glass. Cell grown to confluence on Permanox and PDMS showed minimal differentiation and disruption of the confluent cell background matrix. C2C12 muscle cells cultured on patterned polystyrene and PDMS showed alignment effects when grown on grating patterns and small, micro-scale features (< 5μm). The relative inversion of the pattern features influenced cell behavior for non-grated patterns. Differentiation of muscle cells grown to confluence on patterns showed significant alignment to the underlying pattern features. The ability to form cell culture platforms with specific cell type could lead to the formation of bioactive and biocompatible platforms suitable for medical implants.

Ramesh S. Chaughule
Ramnarain Ruia College, India
Title: Polymer Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Biography:
Dr. Ramesh Chaughule has completed his PhD from Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India, a pioneer institute in India. Also he graduated in Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering. Presently he is an Adjunct Professor at Ramnarain Ruia College, Mumbai, India. Dr. Chaughule has pioneered in the field of NMR and MRI. He was deputed to Indonesia by IAEA several times as an IAEA expert in the field of NMR. He is an awardee of many international Fellowships to carry out research programs in different countries. Besides number of research publications and book chapters to his credit, Dr. Chaughule has edited several books on MRI and Nanotechnology published by American Scientific Publishers, USA. He has organized several international conferences in India.

Abstract:
Ferrites are a large class of oxides with remarkable magnetic properties, which have been investigated and applied during the last 50 years. The possibility of preparing ferrites in the form of nanoparticles (NPs) has opened a new and exciting research field, with revolutionary applications not only in the electronic technology but also in the field of biotechnology. An important ferrite is magnetite, Fe3O4, probably the oldest magnetic solid with practical applications and with polymer coating the nanocomposite can be used for MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). MRI is just the application of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to biological systems exhibiting intensity maps of water proton spin relaxation in tissues. Contrast in the resulting images is the consequence of proton density and relaxation time constants that vary throughout the sample. However, MRI suffers from relatively low sensitivity that limits its utility when relying solely upon these inherent contrast mechanisms and this can be overcome using exogenous magnetic agents that influence local proton spin relaxation dynamics and identifying structures within images. There are several different types of contrast agents, and the two main classes are based on chelated paramagnetic ions, such as gadolinium (Gd), or SPIONs (super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles). SPIONs have exceptional magnetic properties, so they are able to generate sufficient contrast in low doses versus their paramagnetic counterparts, like Gd. They are detectable at very low concentrations than paramagnetic contrast agents. The action of SPIONs is also not as critically dependent on their surroundings. Paramagnetic chelates produce local effects that are mediated by exchange of water protons, but SPIONs produce magnetic field gradients and corresponding changes in tissue susceptibility that impact a larger region without the need for direct contact with water flux. Bare iron oxide NPs tend to be problematic because they are insoluble in water, causing agglomeration and precipitation. In order to stabilize NPs a coating that uses electrostatic and/or steric repulsion to limit NPs’ attraction to each other is necessary. Polymer coated (PNIPAM: poly N-isopropyl acrylamide) iron oxide NPs can be used as imaging modalities. The study on Fe3O4-PNIPAM core-shell NPs shows their potential to be used for MRI could be of high clinical relevance in multimodal cancer theranostics due to consistency in relaxivity values.

Jiajun Gu
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Title: Metallic Butterfly Scales: Superstructures with Excellent SERS Performance
Biography:
Jiajun Gu received his B.Eng. (1996) and Ph.D. (2005) in materials science and engineering from Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China. He is presently a Professor of Materials Science at SJTU and supported by the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, Ministry of Education, China. His research interests mainly focus on bioinspired functional materials and solutions, either in the design of material, or in mechanism studies.

Abstract:
Biological structures naturally display an astonishing variety of sophisticated morphologies that are difficult to achieve even by the most advanced synthetic methodologies. Gleaning natural hierarchical structures, scientists have developed a broad range of novel functional materials based on the template synthesis method. This talk will introduce how to fabricate novel functional metals based on natural bio-structures with a great diversity of morphologies. We mainly focus on replicating the textures and the functionalities of butterfly wing scales in metals. We convert their original components into seven different metals with original bio-morphologies well-inherited. For Ag, Au, and Cu scales, their SERS performance is studied. Results show that Au scales as SERS substrates can exhibit SERS properties higher than their commercial counterparts. A preliminary mechanism responsible for this phenomenon will be introduced. These bio-structured functional metals will have great values for the development of novel materials in the near future, which are otherwise unavailable.

Carlos Castro
The Ohio State University, USA
Title: Mechanical Design of DNA nanostructures
Biography:
Dr. Carlos Castro is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at The Ohio State University. He received his Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees from The Ohio State University in 2005 and obtained his PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2009 all in Mechanical Engineering. His doctoral research focused on measurement of the mechanical behavior of biological cells and molecules. He then pursued post-doctoral research at the Technische Universität München in Biophysics working in DNA nanotechnology. Since 2011, Dr. Castro has established a state-of-the-art lab for the design and fabrication of mechanical DNA nanodevices to probe the physical properties of molecular and cellular systems and was recently awarded a National Science Foundation Career Award.

Abstract:
Structural DNA nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field that has demonstrated great potential for applications such as single molecule sensing, drug delivery, and templating molecular components. While major advances in the last decade have enabled the precise design and fabrication of DNA nanostructures with unprecedented geometric complexity, the functional scope of DNA nanotechnology is still limited by a poor understanding and an inability to design specific mechanical and dynamic behavior. Taking inspiration from methods used in macroscopic machine design, we have recently developed a framework to design DNA nanostructures with well-defined 1D, 2D, and 3D motion as well as structures with tunable mechanical behavior. In particular, we integrate stiff double-stranded DNA components and flexibility single-stranded DNA components to facilitate motion and modulate nanostructure stiffness and dynamic properties. We are further seeking to exploit this ability to control mechanical behavior to design devices capable of making nanoscale physical measurements in both biological and engineered systems. For example, we have recently developed a DNA nanodevice that dynamically switches between designed structural states and is capable of making local viscosity measurements.

Hassan A Arafat
Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, UAE
Title: Membrane filters with functionalized nanomaterial additives for water treatment
Biography:
Prof. Arafat received his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Cincinnati (Cincinnati, OH, USA) in 2000. From 2000-2003, he worked at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) (Illinois, USA) as a researcher and project manager for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). His research at ANL was focused on process development for nuclear waste treatment at DOE sites. Between 2003 and 2010, Dr. Arafat served as a faculty member at the Chemical Engineering Department at An-Najah University (Nablus, Palestine). Between 2009 and 2012, he also served as an adjunct associate professor in the Department of Biological Engineering at Utah State University (Utah, USA). In 2010, he joined Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) as a visiting scholar for six months, after which he moved to Abu Dhabi (UAE) where he now works at Masdar Institute of Science and Technology as an associate professor in the Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering. He is a PI/co-PI on 15 research grants, totaling USD $8.5M, and a recipient of several prestigious international awards and international research fellowships. He is an author of 58 book chapters and peer-reviewed journal papers, one patent, and 70+ conference papers. The focus of Dr. Arafat's recent research interests is on the development of novel membranes for Reverse Osmosis and Membrane Distillation applications in desalination, sustainable and autonomous desalination processes, life cycle analysis, and the development of sustainable solid waste management processes and strategies.

Abstract:
The development of energy-efficient water treatment technology has become a significant area of research as it offers a solution to the increasingly limited water supplies available to the world’s raising population and growing industry. Membrane separations are potent tools for numerous applications, including wastewater treatment and the removal of contaminants from drinking water. In most of the cases, the efficiency of membranes is confined by the properties of the material. Latest developments in nanotechnology have extended the range of applications of membrane technologies to improve their synergistic effects on water and wastewater treatment. In particular, beneficial effects of nanomaterials-based membranes on the reduction of membrane fouling have been reported. Nanoparticles-based membranes can be developed by assembling engineered nanoparticles into porous membranes or blending them with polymeric or inorganic membranes. Recently, successful attempts have been made to incorporate nanoparticles or nanotubes to polymers in membrane synthesis, with particle sizes ranging from 4 nm up to 100 nm. Ceramic membranes have also been fabricated with catalytic nanoparticles. Breakthroughs that have been reported in the field of water and wastewater treatment include fouling mitigation, improvement of permeate quality and flux enhancement. The use of nanoparticles in the manufacturing of membranes allows for both a high degree of control over membrane fouling and the ability to produce desired structure as well as their functionalities.

Nanoelectronics
Nanophotonics and Optics
Robotics and Mechatronics

Session Introduction

Felix Holzner
SwissLitho AG, Switzerland
Title: Thermal probe nanolithography for novel photonic and electronic nanodevices
Biography:
Felix Holzner is a physicist by training with university degrees from Germany and New Zealand and a PhD from ETH Zurich. He worked on thermal scanning probe lithography at IBM Research Zurich for three years, before he initiated its commercialization under the name of NanoFrazor with the incorporation of SwissLitho in 2012. Felix Holzner has an extensive understanding of the NanoFrazor technology and its applications and manages SwissLitho as CEO. With SwissLitho he acquired several European R&D projects and won numerous of the most prestigious startup awards. He holds an ETH Pioneer Fellowship and the IBM Plateau Invention Achievement Award.

Abstract:
A novel alternative to E-beam lithography, in particular for nanophotonicand nanoelectronicdevices, is presented. Patterning resolution and speed aresimilar to high resolution E-beam lithography, however, the novel technique enables direct 3D lithography and in-situ metrology withmarkerless overlay with sub-5 nm accuracy. In addition, materials like graphene or semiconductor nanowires are not damaged during the lithography process. The core of thermal probe nanolithography is a heatable probe tip, which is used for patterning and simultaneous inspection of nanostructures. The heated tip creates arbitrary high-resolution (10 nm half-pitch) nanostructures by local decomposition and evaporation of resist materials like polyphthalaldehyde (PPA). The cold tip is used to directly image the written nanostructures. Both patterning and imaging was demonstrated with up to 20 mm/s scan speed. This novel lithography concept has recently become the first cost-effective alternative and extension to conventional mask-less lithography technologies like E-beam lithography. 3D nanostructures can be patterned in a single step and with unmatched precision by independentdefinition of the patterning depth for each position of the probe tip. This enables new possibilities e.g. for the fabrication ofstrongly improved optical microcavities or trapping, alignment and placement of nanoparticles. The lithography technology is compatible with pattern transfer processes, like reactive ion etching, electroplating or lift-off. Sub-20 nm structures have been transferred with low line edge roughness into semiconductors and metals. Markerless overlay to existing topographical structures can be achieved with sub-5 nm accuracy by imaging the surface prior to the patterning process. This opens new possibilities for nanophotonicand nanoelectronicdevices where the accuracy of the distance between different functional parts of the device is crucial.

Udo Schwingenschlogl
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia
Title: Spin polarized HSE hybrid functional calculations of VO2
Biography:
Dr. Udo Schwingenschlögl is a Professor of Materials Science & Engineering at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia. He previously worked at the International Center of Condensed Matter Physics in Brasilia, Brazil, and the Universität Augsburg in Germany.

Abstract:
We study the rutile (R) and monoclinic (M1) phases of the prototypical compound VO2 by first principles calculations based on density functional theory, employing the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) screened hybrid functional. Our results show that the HSE lowest-energy solutions for both the low-temperature M1 phase and the high-temperature R phase, which are obtained upon inclusion of spin polarization, are at odds with experimental observations. For the M1 phase the groundstate is (but should not be) magnetic, while the groundstate of the R phase, which is also spin-polarized, is not (but should be) metallic. The energy difference between the low-temperature and high-temperature phases is also in strong discrepancy with the experimental latent heat.

Anton V. Malko
The University of Texas at Dallas, USA
Title: Semiconductor Nanocrystals: From Quantum Phenomena to Applications in Energy Sustainability
Biography:
Dr. Malko received PhD in Physics from New Mexico State University/ Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA in 2002. He was a postdoctoral scholar at Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) in 2002-2005 and then at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA from 2005-2007 working on various aspects of spectroscopy and development of low dimensional semiconductor structures. He joined the University of Texas at Dallas in 2007 where he is currently an Associate Professor of Physics and Materials Science. Dr. Malko is a recipient of the National Science Foundation CAREER award, published 40 papers and presented at 60 conferences, and has been continuously funded by NSF and the Department of Energy.

Abstract:
Artificially structured nanoscale materials have attracted a lot of attention in scientific and technical communities during past decades due to the potential for controlling their optical, electronic and chemical properties. CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals or nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) represent a class of quasi-zero-dimensional objects in which the motion of carriers is restricted in all 3 dimensions.Bulk crystalline structure in preserved in NQDs, but due to 3D quantum confinement, NQDs have discrete atomic-like absorption and emission spectra, which are strongly size dependent. In order to successfully apply nanocrystals in a variety of optoelectronics applications, one needs to thoroughly understand and engineer dynamics of strongly correlated electron-hole pairs, namely excitons (X) and multiexcitons (MX) in such NQDs. Dynamics of excitons are often affected by the presence of surface-related states and interactions with the substrates, while MXs are governed by non-radiative, Auger-type interactions. The latter is strongly affecting the performance of NQDs in a variety of applications, ranging from single particle photoluminescence (PL) emission to optical gain and lasing in NQD solids. One aspect of our recent work concerns the issue of single NQD PL intermittence or “blinking” in giant CdSe/CdSmultishellnanocrystals with strongly suppressed Auger recombination. We have recently shown that progressive addition of CdS shells leads to strong modifications of Auger rates, blinking suppression and appearance of higher order MX states in the PL emission spectra. These observations allowed us to propose an ingenuous mechanism explaining evolution of the exciton and multiexciton populations in g-NQDs and would aid the development of the new types of optoelectronic devices that rely on the regulated emission of single photons such as for quantum information and computing. On the other hand, we have been developing hybrid nanostructures by combining strongly absorbing NQDcomponents with high-mobility silicon layers.In such hybrid systems, the excitonic energy is transferred via non-radiative (NRET) and radiative (RET) energy transfers across the interface with the subsequent separation and transport of charge carriers entirely within the semiconductor-based component. Our results show promise for the development of the efficient, thin film, ET-based hybrid structures for photovoltaic applications.

Gilles Jacquemod
University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, France
Title: Self-calibration of analog and mixed cells using back-gate auto-biasing transistor in 28 nm FDSOI technology and beyond
Biography:
GillesJacquemod graduated from CPE Lyon, and received MSc degree in microelectronics from Centrale Lyon in 1986. He received the Ph.D. degree in integrated electronics from INSA Lyon, in 1989. From 1990 to 2000, he worked at Centrale Lyon as an Associate Professor, on analog integrated circuit design and behavioral modeling of mixed domain systems. In 2000, he joined the LEAT laboratory and the EcolePolytechnique of Nice-SophiaAntipolisUniversity as full professor. Since 2010, he is with EpOClaboratory (URE UNS 006). His primary research interests include analog/RF integrated circuit design to wireless communication. He is author and co-author of more than 250 journal and conference papers.

Abstract:
The increase of performances of microelectronics technology, continuous for more than 40 years, is madepossible by a miniaturization of the transistors. The Gordon Moore prediction, known asMoore's law, has proven to be uncannilyaccurate, in part because the law has been the keystone in long-term planning in the semiconductor industry. However, MOS bulk transistor is reaching its limits. Fully Depleteddevices are mandatory to continue the technology roadmap. Two emerging silicon solutions are proposed:FinFETand FDSOI technologies. Called Ultra Thin Body and Buried Oxide transistor, FDSOI transistors correspond to a simple evolution from conventional MOS bulk transistor.FDSOI technology reduces by 3 the standard deviation on the threshold voltage compared with CMOS bulk technology. Secondly, the capability to bias the back-gate allows us toimplement calibration techniques without adding transistors in critical blocks. We have illustrated this technique on a very low power Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO), based on a ring oscillator designed in 28nm FDSOI technology. Despite the fact that such VCO topologyexhibits a larger phase noise, this design will address aggressively the size and power consumption reduction.Indeed we are using the efficient back-gate biasing to compensate themismatches between the different inverters of the ring oscillator to decrease jitter and phase noise. TheVCRO exhibits a 0.8 mW power consumption, with a measured phase noise about -94 dBc/Hz@1MHz. Finally, we propose a new technique in order to increase theses performances using symmetric differential inverter with back-gate auto-biasing.

Yu-Chang Chen
National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan
Title: Application of density functional theory combined with Lippmann-Schwinger equation to thermoelectric properties in atomic/molecular junctions from first principles
Biography:
Yu-Chang Chen has completed his Ph.D. in Physics from University of California, Riverside and Postdoctoral studies from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and University of California, San Diego, California. He is current a Professor of department of electrophysics at National Chiao Tung University in Taiwan. He has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:
Thermoelectric nanojunctions for use in the development of new forms of energy-conversion devices at the nanoscale have attracted rapidly growing attention. Thermoelectric nanojunctions consist of a nano-structured object sandwiched between source-drain electrodes. As the Seebeck coefficients are relevant not only to the magnitude but also to the slope of density of states (DOSs), it is of key importance to investigate the details of electronic structures in thermoelectric nanojunctions. Electronic structures offered by sized reduction thereby provide new opportunities and challenges for exploring new forms of nanoscale renewable energy system. Due to the relatively small sizes of junctions, the nature of electron transport are characterized by coherent wave functions. To calculate the wave functions in atomic/molecular junctions, density-functional theory (DFT) combined with Lippmann-Schwinger equation (LS) is applied to investigate non-equilibrium electron transport and thermoelectric properties. Firstly, we will briefly present an introduction for DFT+LS theory for nanoscale junctions formed by atoms/molecules sandwiched between bimetallic electrodes. We then focus on how we apply LS+DFT to investigate the Seebeck coefficients in atomic/molecular junctions from first-principles approaches. To gain further insight into the quantum transport of electrons and energy under nonequilibrium conditions, we investigate effects of electron-vibration interactions on the Seebeck coefficient and the figure of merit ZT. We also propose several atomic-scale thermoelectric devices, such as nano-refrigerators, power generators, and self-powered atomistic transistor.

Maria del Carmen Gimenez Lopez
University of Nottingham, UK
Title: Multifunctional Hybrid Metal-Carbon Nanostructures For Spintronics and Energy-related Applications
Biography:
Dr. Maria received her PhD degree in Chemistry from the University of Valencia (Spain) in 2006. She then moved to the School of Chemistry at the University of Nottingham as a postdoctoral Research Fellow where she has been working since then. In 2009, Maria was awarded a prestigious Marie Curie Research Fellowship and she is currently a Royal Society Dorothy Hodgkin Research Fellow. In 2012, Maria received an Emerging Investigator Award from the Spanish Royal Society of Chemistry. Despite the early stage of her research career, she has already made significant impact in magnetism, supramolecular chemistry and nanoscience.

Abstract:
Spintronics is an emerging field of electronics aiming at exploiting the property of the spin of the electron in addition to its charge. Information is stored as one of two possible orientations (up and down). In principle, manipulating spin is faster and requires far less energy than pushing charges around and it can take place at smaller scales. Spintronics also offers the possibility to create computer memories that can retain the stored information even when not powered. However, fundamental understanding of the control, manipulation and detection of the spin of the electron appears to be extremely challenging, as scientist from different disciplines have been tackling these problems for several years. In the electronics market it is also very important that we find new ways to store electrical energy more efficiently. Anyone who has run low on charge during an important phone call knows the limits of batteries. They take a long time to charge and their safety often arises as an issue. Carbon-based supercapacitors have huge potential to transform the way future electronics are powered. However, supercapacitors are not yet ready for the open road. That’s because, although they charge and discharge quickly, they do not store much energy. The decoration of carbon nanotubes with magnetic and pseudocapacitors nanocomponents has been proposed for the development of nanoscale spintronic applications and electrode materials to boost supercapacitor’s energy density. My research is focused on the encapsulation of these active nanocomponents within the internal cavities of hollow 1D tubular carbon nanostructures.

Monica Lira-Cantu
Catalan Institut of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Spain
Title: Future Requirements of Semiconductor Oxides for Photovoltaic Applications
Biography:
Dr. Monica Lira-Cantu obtained a Master and PhD degrees in Materials Science at the Materials Science Institute of Barcelona (ICMAB) & Autonoma University of Barcelona (1995/1997) and completed a postdoctoral work under a contract with the company Schneider Electric/ICMAB (1998). From 1999 to 2001 she worked as permanent Senior Staff Chemist at ExxonMobil Research & Engineering (formerly Mobil Technology Co) in New Jersey (USA) initiating a laboratory on energy related applications (fuel cells and gas membranes). She returned to Spain in 2002. She received different awards/fellowships as a visiting scientist to the following laboratories: University of Oslo, Norway (2003), Riso National Laboratory, Denmark (2004/2005) and the Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Japan (2006). She is Group Leader of the Nanostructured Materials for Photovoltaic Energy Group at the Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ICN2 (www.icn.cat) in Barcelona (Spain). Since 2007 she has directed more than 20 people within her research laboratory (from Postdocs, PhD students and undergraduate students). She has been the PI of several projects (both national and with industry), and she is the principal coordinator of a COST Action Proposal (approved in 2013) related to the study of the stability of Organic solar cells (OPVs). Her research interests are the synthesis and application of nanostructured materials for Next-generation Thin FIlm Solar Cells: Dye sensitized Hybrid, Organic and Perovskite Solar Cells. Monica Lira-Cantu has more than 73 published papers, 7 patents and 8 book chapters.

Abstract:
Transition metal oxides (TMOs), from the simplest binary oxides to the more complex oxide compounds, are a class of materials with great variety of functional properties. These span from insulating, semiconducting or metallic behavior, to ferroelectricity, magnetism, magnetoresistance or superconductivity properties, among many more. TMOs are now regularly applied in many printed electronic and optoelectronic devices such as thin film photovoltaics (TFPVs), field effect (FETs) and thin film transistors (TFTs), light emitting diodes (LEDs), among many others. Common to most of these devices are their maturity with respect to novel nanomaterials and high performance. The attention is now directed to their manufacture, which include large-scale, large-volume, flexible and recyclable, disposable and/or reusable devices. The application of solution-processing methods for their fabrication is one of the challenges facing the development of these oxide nanomaterials. These methods must include the application of “green inks” for the fabrication of large-scale, large volume and low cost devices. In this work we will present a brief overview about the application of oxide semiconductors (from binary oxides or graphene oxide to more complex semiconductors) in different photovoltaic devices and a description of the current work developed in our laboratory. We will show the synthesis of TMOs, their optimization as “green ink” and their application in photovoltaic devices at laboratory and the scale up applying printing processes.

Munira Raja
University of Liverpool, UK
Title: Design and development of organic circuits for use in low-cost smart sensor systems
Biography:
Dr Munira Raja is a lecturer at the University of Liverpool (UK), where she also leads the research activities of the Organic Electronics group. Her research interest involves development of flexible organic circuits, for use as key functional blocks in low-cost mixed-signal applications. Dr Raja was the principal investigator of several collaborative European projects such as SIMS and POLYNET (under Fp7 and Fp6 Framework), and UK projects such as the NorthernWay. Dr Raja is also the Programme Committee member of the ‘International Conference on Organic Electronics’ (ICOE), and an affiliated member of the ‘Observatoire des Micro et NanoTechnologies’ (OMNT). She is a Chartered Engineer of the IET, and a member of IEEE. She has 50 publications including invited talks, journal and conference papers.

Abstract:
Organic Electronics continues to evolve steadily in the development of simple digital circuits. Efforts have also begun in the development of analog counterpart, for use as key functional blocks in flexible low-cost smart sensor systems. This however has been generally challenging due to the complexity of the fabrication processes, owing to the circuit architecture adapted. Moreover, the performance such as the gain and bandwidth of the circuits are hindered, due to the low charge carrier mobility of the active layer, and the variability of the parameters associated with solution-processed layers. In this talk, we propose novel approaches in the design of an organic analog circuit such as the Operational amplifier, for integration in a smart sensor technology. We propose methods to tackle and investigate the various issues addressed above. The circuit designs adapt a pseudo-PMOS configuration with saturated loads, rather than the alternative CMOS, so as to utilise p-channel organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) of higher mobility. Subsequently, only one type of metal contact is required for the source/drain of the OTFTs, with smaller number of input gates as compared to CMOS. There are however performance trade-offs to be considered when adapting the pseudo-PMOS designs, particularly on the voltage range of the logics, switching point and operational speeds. Nonetheless, such trade-off can be compensated by adjusted the aspect ratios of OTFTs, and utilising additional circuitry to boost the gain and attain adequate bandwidth for sensor applications. The organic circuit designs are simulated using appropriate organic based models/parameters which include low mobility and high contact resistances, and validated with experimental data. The effects of the parameter variability, on the overall circuit performance are discussed, and finally the functionality of the organic circuit in sensing applications is presented.

Bashir Ahmmad
Yamagata University, Japan
Title: Synthesis of Ba/Gd and Ti co-doped BiFeO3 Nanoparticles and their Dielectric and Magnetic Properties
Biography:
Bashir Ahmmad has completed his PhD from Kagoshima University, Japan. Currently, he is an assistant professor at the Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University. He is a recipient of Japanese Government Scholarship and also JSPS postdoctoral fellowship by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. His research interests include nanomaterials, magnetic materials, photocatalysts for solar hydrogen via water splitting and solar cells. He has published more than 45 papers in reputed journals and he is serving as editorial board member of International Institute of Engineers and guest editor of the International Journal of Photoenergy.

Abstract:
Amongst the multiferroic ceramics being widely investigated, BiFeO3 is a promising candidate for novel applications. BiFeO3 has a rhombohedrally distorted perovskite structure and possesses simultaneously ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism or ferroelasticity in a single phase. However, phase impurity, poor magnetic property due to spiral modulate spin structure and current leakage problems due to existence of oxygen ion vacancies limit their uses in multifunctional devices. To overcome these problems, partial substitution of Bi3+ with ions having bigger ionic radius has been fund to be effective. Here, the co-doping effects of Ba/Gd and Ti to BiFeO3 on their dielectric and magnetic properties have been investigated. The bulk powder of Bi0.9Gd0.1Fe1–xTixO3 and Bi0.7Ba0.3Fe1-xTixO3 (x=0.00-0.25) ceramics were synthesized by conventional solid state reaction technique. XRD analysis revealed that Ti doping induces as phase transition from rhombohedral to orthorhombic. The dielectric constants of the both samples were found to be stable over a wide range of high frequencies. With increasing Ti dopant the magnetization of Bi0.9Gd0.1Fe1–xTixO3 ceramic was increased by 20%. On the other hand, magnetization of Bi0.7Ba0.3Fe1-xTixO3 ceramics decreased by 20% with increasing Ti doping but coercivity was increased by 10%. Finally, ultrafine nanoparticles of the ceramics were prepared by ultrasonic fragmentation of the bulk powder. TEM analyses confirmed the formation of single-crystalline nanoparticles with a mean size of 12 nm. The ultrafine nanoparticles of Bi0.9Gd0.1Fe1–xTixO3 showed 10 times improved magnetization compared to their bulk counterparts at room temperature. Improved magnetic property also was observed for ultrafine nanoparticles of Bi0.7Ba0.3Fe1-xTixO3 ceramics.

Wang Zhang
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Title: Characterization and simulation of bioinspired optical ceramics templated from lepidopteran wings
Biography:
Dr. ZHANG Wang is Shanghai Jiao Tong University lecturer. He got the PhD degree in materials science at the Shanghai Jiaotong University in 2008. From 2009 to 2010, he worked as a post-doctor at the Technical University of Troyes, France. In 2008, he got the Fifth China Youth Scienceand Technology Innovation Award and president of Shanghai Jiao Tong University Award. In 2010, his PhD thesis was named the outstanding doctoral dissertation in Shanghai. Up to now, he has published 31 SCI papers with 328 other citations, and H-index 9. His research involves many aspects of the biological template, microstructure analysis and functional oxide. Mainly includes the following two aspects: First, with special microscopic grading structure Lepidoptera wings as a structural template, through a series of chemical coupling to prepare both original natural structure characteristics obtained inorganic functional materials characteristics. The new type of structure function material; analysis method based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, optical properties carried out on the microscopic grading three-dimensional structure analysis and optimization algorithm using Particle Swarm (PSO) to optimize the design of specific optical properties.

Abstract:
Recently, an increasing number of researchers have directed their attention to the wings of lepidopterans (butterflies and moths) because of their dazzling colors. According to one previous study, these iridescent colors are caused by periodic structures on the scales that make up the surfaces of these wings. These materials have recently become a focus of multidiscipline research because of their promising applications in the display of structural colors, advanced sensors, and solar cells. This work will provide a broad overview of the research into these wings. Specifically, the review focuses on characterization and simulation of bioinspired optical materials templated from lepidopteran wings scales.

Mehmet Egilmez
American University of Sharjah, UAE
Title: Proximity Inducted Triplet Superconductivity in Half-Metallic La0.7Ca0.3MnO3
Biography:
Dr. Mehmet Egilmez holds a PhD in Physics from University of Alberta, Canada. Prior to his current position, he worked as a research associate at University of Cambridge, UK, for more than three years. He has expertise in oxide thin film growth and characterization of their electrical and magnetic properties. He has studied many oxide materials with particular emphasis on magnetic/superconducting thin film hetero-structures. His research benefits from various measurement techniques, ranging from standard magneto-transport measurements to sophisticated Muon spin rotation/resonance measurements. He is the author/co-author of over 60 publications.

Abstract:
Conventional singlet Cooper pairs from a superconductor (S) are short-ranged in a ferromagnet (F) because the magnetic exchange field in the latter acts differently on the antiparallel electrons which form the pair. This is not the case for parallel spin triplet pairs and long-range proximity effects have now been found in a variety of systems. A triplet supercurrent should be 100% spin-polarised in a half-metallic ferromagnet: here we show that inhomogeneous magnetism in all-oxide epitaxial S/half-metal/S heterostructures can generate the long-range supercurrents necessary to develop superconducting spin electronics.

Yasuhiro Sugawara
Osaka University, Japan
Title: Atomic-resolution Imaging of the Optical Near-field Using Photon-induced Force
Biography:
Yasuhiro Sugawara acquired PhD in experimental physics at Tohoku University (Japan). He is a professor for applied physics at Osaka University since 2002. He is one of the leading scientists in experimental Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM). He is responsible for experimental research on nanophotonics, atom manipulation, characterization of nanostructure, and catalytic reaction on nanostructures. He was the project leader of Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) and Core Research for Evolutionary of Science and Technology (CREST), which were the biggest research projects in Japan.

Abstract:
High-resolution optical imaging that overcomes the diffraction limit of light is of interest in various photonics applications. In typical near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM), a sub-wavelength scale aperture or a sharp tip has been used to transmit or scatter the optical near-field on a surface. The probe converts the near-field on the surface at the sub-wavelength scale into a propagating wave, which is measured using a photodetector located in the far-field. Optical resolution in the 1-10 nm range is achievable; however, atomic-resolution imaging has not been achieved because of the high transmission loss of the light caused by the small aperture or the high far-field background induced by spurious reflections from the tip shaft and other sources. In this study, we investigated the high-resolution imaging of the optical near-field on a surface using photon-induced force. In this method, the surface photovoltage on the Si tip apex induced by the optical near field on the surface is measured via the induced electrostatic force. This method is very promising because it enables the measurement of the optical near-field just below the location of the sharp tip in the near-field and therefore does not suffer propagation loss or the influence of the far-field background. For the first time, we succeeded in achieving atomic-resolution imaging of the optical near-field on the sapphire α-Al2O3 (0001) surface. This success is a promising development in the exploration of atomic-scale physical and chemical interactions between light and atoms/molecules and offers deeper insight into the various photonic processes and functions on surfaces.

Qing Cao
IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA
Title: Carbon Nanotubes for High-performance Logic Electronics
Biography:
Dr. Cao received his PhD. degree in Chemistry from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2009. He then joined IBM T.J. Watson Research Center and currently works as a research staff member. Dr. Cao have published more than 25 papers in journals, including Nature, Nature Nanotechnology, Nature Communications, and Advanced Materials, and have served on committee of IBM Materials Research Community and program committee of IEEE 12th International Conference on Nanotechnology. Dr. Cao is a recipient of many awards including Forbes Magazine's "Top 30 under 30" Award in Science (2012) and IBM Invention Achievement Award (2011, 2012, 2014).

Abstract:
Nanotubes could replace silicon in high-performance electronics with their exceptional electrical properties and intrinsic ultra-thin body. However, it is still a daunting challenge to realize practical devices and systems based on nanotubes, mainly limited by material issues. Here we will review some most significant recent advances made at IBM Research. For device physics, the average performance and the variability of nanotube transistors are characterized and benchmarked with those of the state-of-the-art silicon technologies. Based on these results, chip level simulations indicate that nanotube transistors are the most promising candidate for high-performance electronics at 5 nm technology node, compared to both silicon devices and other emerging technologies. We then demonstrate the successfully sorting of nanotubes based on their electronic types to a purity level above 99.95% as verified by direct electrical measurements. Those sorted nanotubes can be assembled into high-density and well-aligned arrays for device fabrication. With the Langmuir-Schaefer method, full surface coverage aligned arrays of semiconducting nanotubes can be assembled with their pitch self-limited by the nanotube diameter. However, the assembled nanotube arrays exhibit a double layered structure, which could be unfavorable for device operations. To overcome this limitation, we recently developed a method in which the alternating voltage fringing electric field formed between surface microelectrodes and the substrate is utilized to assemble semiconducting nanotubes into well-aligned, ultrahigh density, and sub-monolayered arrays, with a consistent pitch as small as 21nm. Devices based on such ultrahigh density aligned arrays demonstrate record high performance, at both transistor and single tube level.

Gengchiau Liang
National University of Singapore, Singapore
Title: Nanoscale devices based on the low dimensional structures towards low power-consumption application
Biography:
Dr. Gengchiau Liang is an Associate Professor in Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at National University of Singapore. He received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in physics from National Tsinghua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, in 1995 and 1997, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical and computer engineering from Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, in 2005. His current research topics are focused on modeling and theoretical investigation of advanced 2D materials (graphene, and beyond graphene) and their applications, topological electronic devices for spintronics, energy harvesting devices based on thermoelectric properties of nano-devices, low power consumption devices, and nanoscale field-effect transistors.

Abstract:
In the last decades, the continuous scaling of silicon planar MOSFETs has successfully enhanced the performance of digital processing systems, such as logic and information devices. Continuing this scaling trend, the channel length of silicon MOSFETs as predicted by ITRS will need to be scaled even further to meet future generation technology requirements. Therefore, numerous advance materials (such as strained silicon, III-V channel material, nanowire FETs, graphene-based FETs, etc.), and emerging device concepts and technology (tunneling FETs, NEMs, tunneling diode, and spintronic devices, etc.) have been proposed. Among these research devices, two-dimensional material, such as graphene related materials, MoS2, etc., have been extensively studied and generated considerable interesting due to their unique electronic and optoelectronic properties. In additions, the interesting spintronic behaviors in several 2D materials, namely spin separation in silicnece and germanene and spin locked in topological materials, also attract a lot of attentions for spintronic device applications. In this talk, therefore, I shall firstly give the introduction to the current development on the FET-related devices and novel functional devices. Next, I will discuss the fundamentals of material properties of these advanced 2D materials including graphene and beyond graphene, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), silicene, Bi¬2Se3, etc. Finally, I will discuss the device physics/performance of conventional FETs, tunneling FETs, NEMs, spin filters and other potential devices for low power, high performance applications.

Shu-Jen Han
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, USA
Title: High-speed Nanoelectronics Based on Graphene and Beyond
Biography:
Shu-Jen Han is the manager of Nanoscale Science and Technology group at the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center. He holds a Ph.D. in Materials Sci. & Eng. and Ph.D. minor in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University. His current research activities encompass the heterogeneous integration using low-dimensional nanomaterials to develop novel nanodevices and circuits. He has authored or co-authored over 60 technical publications and holds more than 35 US patents with more than 30 pending, and was appointed as IBM Master Inventor.

Abstract:
Graphene has attracted much interest as a future channel material in high-frequency electronics because of its superior electrical properties. Recent development has been shifted from the device level study to the circuit level demonstration. I will review and discuss several key challenges for large-scale graphene device fabrication, including high quality gate dielectric, large-area film transfer, and output current saturation. Furthermore, fabrication of a graphene integrated circuit without significantly degrading transistor performance has proven to be challenging, posing one of the major bottlenecks to compete with existing technologies. I will review our effort of developing graphene IC in the past few years, starting with a simple 1-stage mixer built on a SiC piece, toward the recent demonstration of a high-performance three-stage graphene IC that fully preserves graphene transistor quality post-IC fabrication. This new circuit operates as a radio frequency receiver performing signal amplification, filtering and downconversion mixing. All circuit components are integrated into 0.6mm2 area and fabricated on 200mm Si wafers, showing the unprecedented graphene circuit complexity and silicon CMOS process compatibility. Beyond graphene, more suitable 2D materials with energy bandgap for electronics applications are being aggressively investigated. I will discuss some recent progress of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) and black phosphorus (BP) based transistors in my group. In addition, other applications such as plasmonics and photodetectors using these novel 2D materials will be briefly discussed.

Kamel Boukheddaden
Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University, France
Title: New paradigm in the spatio-temporal properties of spin-crossover single crystals: Interface control and photo-induced dissipative structures
Biography:
Dr. Kamel Boukheddaden completed his Ph.D. in 1993 from the Université Pierre and Marie Curie in Paris, France. After Postdoctoral studies at the Department of Physics (Liège, Blegium) he was an Assistant Professor at the University of Versailles (1994), then Associate Professor in 1995. He became a full Professor in the same University in 2004. His main field concerns the phase transition dynamics in single crystals, their visualization by optical microscopy, the interface control and the emergence of photo-induced self-organized structures. The modeling of these phenomena using elastic models or reaction diffusion equations represent also specific topics of interest.

Abstract:
We investigated the spatiotemporal studies on a spin-crossover single crystal, which exhibits an incomplete thermal spin transition with hysteresis near 100 K. The robust character of the crystals made possible the investigation of both on-cooling and on-heating processes. We observed well-defined transformation fronts between macroscopic high spin (HS) and low-spin (LS) phases. The fronts are almost linear in shape, and propagate through the entire crystals, even in isothermal conditions. The interface orientation was ~ constant and its propagation velocity typically was ~ 1 and 10 µm/s for the on-cooling and on-heating processes, respectively. The videos of the spin transition processes will be shown in real (or accelerated) time. At very low temperature, under light, metastable photo-excited HS states are generated. Increasing temperature with light ON, a competition between the thermally- and photo-induced processes takes place, leading to a new instability, during which we observed the emergence of pattern formation. The latter are attributed to the existence of a regime of dissipative structures. Using microscopic models, we succeeded to simulate the experimental data and explained the physical origin of the stable front orientation as well as that of the front dynamics and the formation of the self-organized structures under light.

Shamsul Arafin
University of California, USA
Title: Recent Progress of heteroepitaxyon high-qualityGaAs on Silicon
Biography:
Shamsul Arafin is a Postdoctoral Research Scholar in Device research laboratory at University of California at Los Angeles, USA. He received the B.Sc. degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Bangladesh in 2005 and the M.Sc. degree in Communication Technology from Universität Ulm, Germany, in 2008. He received his Ph.D. degree from TechnischeUniversitätMünchen, Walter SchottkyInstitut Germany in 2011. In 2012, he joined the nanophotonics group of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at McGill University as a post-doc fellow. Till now he has authored and coauthored more than 60 papers in leading technical journals and international conferences.

Abstract:
III-V compounds epitaxially grown on silicon (Si) have attracted immense research interests for many years due to its applications in integration of optoelectronic devices with Si-based mature microelectronic technology. However, such direct heteroepitaxy is mainly challenged by lattice­mismatch, polar­on­nonpolar epitaxy, and thermal expansion mismatch. Suchintrinsic material­relatedproblems can be overcome by two different techniques. One of the methods is the nanoscale growth of GaAson patterned silicon substrates.Recently, using a record-thin buffer layer, high­quality,defect-free and atomically-smooth GaAs thin films on silicon are successfully deposited byemploying a patterned growth technique where GaAs films are grown by molecular beam epitaxy onsilicon dioxide patterned silicon substrates.Very recently,high­qualityapplication-suited planar InGaAs/GaAs multilayer heterostructures on patterned silicon substrates utilizing ultra-thin buffer layer have also been demonstrated.As a second method, the quasi van der Waals epitaxial (QvdWE) growth of GaAs on Si using a two­dimensional layered material, graphene, as a lattice mismatch / thermal expansion coefficient mismatch relieving buffer layer is a novel route towards heteroepitaxial integration in the developing field of silicon photonics. In this study, we report the two-dimensional (2D) growth of GaAs thin films on graphene/Si system to create 3D/2D heterostructures. Here we show – for the first time - ultra­smooth morphology of quasi-epitaxial GaAs films on silicon using QvdWE, making it a remarkable step towards an eventual demonstration of the epitaxial growth of GaAs by this approach.

Wei Pan
Sandia National Labs, USA
Title: Superconducting properties in tantalum decorated three-dimensional graphene and carbon structures
Biography:
Dr. Wei Pan is a Distinguished Member of Technical Staff at Sandia National Laboratories. He has made many important discoveries and decisive contributions to the field of many-particle physics in low dimensional electron systems. He was a member of Organizing and Program committees of the 16th International Conference on Electronic Properties of Two-Dimensional System (EP2DS-16) and acted as a guest editor of Physica E. He served as a member of Users Advisory Committee and Research Program Committee for the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. He was awarded the 2007 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.

Abstract:
Research on two-dimensional (2D) graphene has attracted enormous interests since the integer quantum Hall effect was observed in this material system in 2005. Due to the nature of an exposed 2D electron system open to environment, many studies have been carried out in examining how adsorption of metal adatoms on graphene sheet can modify its electronic transport properties for electronics, sensors and energy applications. In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) graphene structures, a flexible and conductive interconnected graphene network, have generated a great deal of interests. Compared to 2D graphene sheets, surface area in 3D graphene structures is greatly enhanced. Furthermore, 3D graphene maintains the outstanding electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties as in 2D graphene. As a result, 3D graphene structures are expected to play an important role in flexible electronics, sensors, and energy storage applications (e.g., supercapacitors, battery electrodes, and hydrogen storage). In this talk, I will present our recent electronic transport results on superconducting properties in tantalum decorated 3D graphene and carbon structures, following the pioneering work of decorating 2D graphene sheets with superconducting materials. A superconducting transition is observed in both composite thin films. The magnetoresistance at various temperatures and differential resistance dV/dI at different magnetic fields were also carried out. The obtained critical magnetic field shows linear temperature dependence. Moreover, an anomalously large cooling effect was observed in the differential resistance measurements in our 3D graphene - tantalum composite when the device turns superconducting.

Sergey G. Lebedev
Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Title: Using the effect of conductivity switching in nanographite films to limit short-circuit currents in the smart grid
Biography:
Dr. Sergey G.Lebedev has graduated from the Moscow Physical Engineering Institute, 1980. In 1983 S.G.Lebedev has graduated from Dept. of Mathematics of the Lomonosov Moscow State University. From 1980 up to now he has worked at the Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1991 S.G.Lebedev has obtained his PhD. Dr. Lebedev is the author of 150 scientific articles. He is a member of International Nuclear Target Development Society. The whole point of his life is in science and his whole life devoted to science.

Abstract:
The effect of electrical resistivity switching in nano – graphite (NG) films is described. In difference with cases published elsewhere the switching in nano – graphite films occurs from stable high conductive to metastable low conductive state. Critical current of switching varies in the range 0.1- 2A and is believed will increase up to values of 100 -1000 A appropriate for using of nano - graphite samples in power grids as contact-less current limiters and circuit breakers. The possible mechanisms of switching phenomenon in nano – graphite films are discussed. The nano-graphite films were obtained by means of CVD method on the quartz substrate. CVD process has been take place in thermal activated hydrogen-acetylene gas mixture at the temperature of 900oC. As a result the 0.1-1 micrometer thick NG film has been produced. The structure is studied by the atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It has been shown this structure is consistent with the representation about NG films as a composite of small (30-50Å) graphite-like sp2-bonding granules embedded in the matrix of amorphous carbon. Some explanation of the effect observed may be done in terms of collapse of wave function of hot electrons which gives rise to localization of carriers. The carrier mean free path is very sensitive to the temperature.

Anup Sharma
Alabama A&M University, USA
Title: Novel Nano/Micro patterned substrates for sensing and materials research
Biography:
Dr. Anup Sharma is a professor of physics at Alabama A&M University. He has a Masters degree from the Indian Institute of Technology and a PhD from Columbia University. His dissertation involved first demonstration of a continuous-wave mirror-less laser in alkali vapor. Dr. Sharma continued his research in Optics and Spectroscopy at the Max-Planck Institute, Germany, Texas A&M University and the Bhabha Atomic Research Center, India. Dr. Sharma has guided several PhD students and developed graduate courses in Biophotonics and Nanophotonics and an undergraduate course in Nanotechnology. He is a recipient of a Career Award from the National Science Foundation.

Abstract:
Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been widely used to enhance the weak Raman signals by a factor as large as 1015. The technique involves Raman spectroscopy on nano/micro patterned substrates of gold and silver. Commercial nano/micro patterned substrates for SERS are generally made by electron-beam lithography. They are expensive and specified for single use applications. Our recent effort in this field has been to fabricate inexpensive but reliable substrates which are also recyclable for multiple use applications. One such novel substrate involves ceramic nanoporous membranes. These have been widely used for filtration applications involving gases and liquids within bioengineering fields for implantable medical devices, water treatment, electronic and pharmaceutical industries. Recent technique to fabricate high-performance ceramic membranes involves nanofibers/nanorods instead of particulates with irregular shapes. In a recent study by us, such nanoporous ceramic membranes were coated with 50 nm gold film and used for SERS-based plasmonic chemical sensors. The sensitivity of these sensors was comparable to the expensive nanoengineered commercial substrates made by e-beam lithography. We have also investigated interferometric UV lithography on polymers like polybutadiene and polyethylene. Nanopatterned polymer substrates are coated with gold to make SERS-active. Selection of polymers is based on ability to form optical-quality substrates. These substrates have been characterized by sensing a number of chemicals including explosives, dyes and biomolecules. UV interferometric lithography also provides a novel technique for materials characterization by investigating photodegradation of polymers and biomolecules. This is demonstrated for the important polymer polybutadiene (rubber) and the biomolecule, melanine.

Thomas Brunschwiler
IBM Research – Zurich, Switzerland
Title: Enhanced electrical and thermal interconnects enabled by the self-assembly of nanoparticle necks utilizing capillary bridging
Biography:
Thomas Brunschwiler is a research staff member of the advanced micro integration team at IBM Research - Zurich. He conducts physical research and coordinates governmental and joint projects. In this respect he is pushing the frontiers in 3D integration with respect to scalable heat removal and power delivery, supporting performance and efficiency scaling of high end servers. He performed his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering at the Technical University of Berlin, entitled “Interlayer Thermal Management of High-Performance Microprocessor Chip Stacks”. He also served as a technical assistant to the lab director in strategic and planning activities. Thomas Brunschwiler authored and co-authored over 60 publications, one book chapter and over 35 patents. He is in the committee of several technical conferences and is a Senior Member of IEEE.

Abstract:
Future micro-electronic devices will have to show more functionality and performance at smaller size, lower cost and lower energy consumption in order to be competitive in the multi-billion dollar electronic market. Advanced system integration is thus inevitable, a trend bound to joining dissimilar materials with new packaging technologies. These processes must enable lower thermal resistances and higher interconnect density and device reliability under thermomechanical loading. The proposed idea comprises a sequential joint forming process, using self-assembly of nanoparticles with high thermal conductivity, polymers and filler composite materials exploiting capillary bridges combined with chemical surface functionalization. Particle-laden composite materials such as electrical anisotropic conductive adhesives (ACA) or thermal interface materials (TIM) are used in electronic packages to facilitate electrical or thermal transport between components. The performance of those materials is dominated by the point contacts between percolating filler particles embedded in the polymer matrix. In this paper, we disclose a novel method for enhancing the electrical and thermal interconnects in flip-chip-on-package and 3D-chip stack applications. The method is based on the formation of necks between micron-sized features such as pillars and pads or spheres, due to the self-assembly of nanoparticles using capillary bridging. Liquid bridges between micron-sized particles are known to exist in wet sand, providing the needed mechanical strength to build sand-castles at the beach. We propose now the injection of a nanoparticle suspension into a micron-sized particle bed, followed by the evaporation of the carrier fluid. The nanoparticles remain in the liquid during evaporation and form the desired necks around the point contacts once all the fluid is removed.

Mohammad Azad Malik
The University of Manchester, UK
Title: The AACVD of Cu2FeSnS4 and Cu2FeSn(SSe)4:Future Solar cell Materials
Biography:
Dr Malik completed his PhD from University of London in 1990 and have worked in Queen Mary University of London and Imperial College London as Postdoctoral Research associate. He is now an independent Senior Research Fellow at The University of Manchester. He has published more than 200 papers and 10 book chapters. His work include the synthesis of metal-organic/organo-metallic complexes and their use as precursors for the preparation of semiconductor nanoparticles, or the deposition of thin films and their characterisation. He is a reviewer for many international journals and an invited reporter for the Royal Society of Chemistry’s Specialist Periodical Report (SPR) on Nano-Science and Engineering on materials for solar energy. He received a WCPEC PAPER AWARD from 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion “The Quantum dot Concentrator: Theory and Results”, Osaka, Japan, 2003.

Abstract:
Copper indium gallium sulfides and selenides, CuInxGa(1-x)Se2 (CIGS), Cu(In1 -xGax) (S1 – y Sey)2 (CIGSSe) are amongst the more efficient materials but indium and gallium are expensive and comparatively rare. Copper iron tin sulfides/selenides (CFTS and CFTSSe) materials are based on earth abundant and generally environmentally benign elements. They are cheap and may prove highly cost-effective for commercial applications. Their band gaps lie between 0.9 – 1.5eV, making them suitable for solar energy harvesting and hence attracted recent attention. Polycrystalline Cu2FeSnS4 (CFTS), and Cu2FeSn(SSe)4 (CFTSSe) thin films have been deposited by Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (AACVD) using mixtures of Fe(S2CNEt2)3, Bu2Sn(S2CNEt2)2 and Cu(S2CNEt2)2 as precursors for CFTS and of Fe(S2CNEt2)3, Bu2Sn(S2CNEt2)2 and Cu(PPh3)[Ph2P(Se)NP(Se)Ph2] for CFTSSe. Structures, morphologies, compositions and their optical properties studied by SEM, XRD, EDX, Raman Spectroscopy and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The band gap of these materials ranges from 1.45 eV to 1.60 eV depending upon the type and the composition of material.

Nanotechnology for Energy and the Environment

Session Introduction

Ching-Fuh Lin
National Taiwan University, Taiwan
Title: Environmentally Benign Nanotechnology for Efficient Warm-White Light Emission
Biography:
Prof. Ching-Fuh Lin obtained the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, in 1989 and 1993, respectively, all in electrical engineering. He is now the Director of Innovative Photonics Advanced Research Center (i-PARC) and a joint distinguished professor in the Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, and Department of Electrical Engineering at National Taiwan University. His major research area is in photonics, including organic-inorganic composites for light-emission devices and solar cells, Si-based photonics, and physics in broadband semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers. He is a Fellow of IEEE, a Fellow of SPIE, Member of Asia-Pacific Academy of Materials, and a member of OSA. He has published over 160 journal papers and 450 conference papers and holds more than 60 patents. He is also the sole author of two books, “Optical Components for Communications: Principles and Applications”, published by Springer Science (USA 2004), and “Optics and Photonics: Fundamentals and Applications” (in Chinese, 2012), and co-authors a book, “Organic, Inorganic and Hybrid Solar Cells –Principles and Practice”, published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and IEEE Press, 2012.

Abstract:
We explore a cutting-edge luminescent nanotechnology featuring environmental benignity for solid-state lighting.Thisluminescent nanotechnology can be integrated with commercial UV- or blue-LEDs to produce brightly warm white light as a source of indoor lighting. Unlike the conventional phosphors, of whichtransition mechanisms mainlyhinge on rare earth elements (REEs), the luminescent nanotechnologyhere is REE free and formed by the combination of semiconductor nanoparticles(ZnO, ZnS:Mn and other II-V compounds ) and polymeric materials (poly(9,9-di-n-hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl), PF). Thehybrid nanostructuresembrace three different electron-hole-recombination mechanisms which can contribute to photon emissions corresponding to blue, green and orange light, respectively. Accordingly, white light is directly emitted from the nanocomposites upon UV- or blue-light excitations. Without using toxic metals and even REEs, efficientlywarm white light emission has beenachieved under this luminescent nanotechnology. Presently, the innovative nanotechnology has been demonstrated the wide tunablity of color temperature ranging from 3000 K to 6000 K, indicating both candle light and pure white light are attainable. More importantly, this luminescent nanotechnology exhibits a high quantum efficiency (QE) of 90% under the commercial UV-LEDs excitation (The QE of commercial YAG phosphor is ~95%). Blue-LED excitation also exhibits good QE. Thisluminescent nanotechnology can serve as a judicious way to overcome the healthy issues involved with current blue-YAG-LED lighting, as well as considerably reduce the use of REEs in solid-state-lighting technology, thus providing environmentally friendly and health caring lighting for human lifes.

Arturs Medvids
Riga Technical University, Latvia
Title: Quantum Cones Formation in Semiconductors by Laser Radiation: Experiments, Modeling and Application
Biography:
Dr. Arturs Medvids, optics and spectroscopy physicist, graduated from Physics department of Kiev State University, Ukraine, in 1968. He worked for Institute of Semiconductor Physics of Ukrainian Academy of Sciences 1959-1969. In 1994 obtained the degree Dr. habil. Phys., with specialization: Solid State Physics at Latvian University, Riga. Since 1989 he has been the head of Laboratory of Semiconductor Physics at Riga Technical University and since 1995 - professor at the Institute of Technical Physics of Riga Technical University. In 2001, he worked in Japan as an invited professor in Shizuoka University. He was awarded the title of Honourable guest professor of Shizuoka University, Japan in 2009 and in 2014. He has published more than 531 scientific publications: papers, conferences proceedings, books and patents. He was an Invited speaker at the International conference in USA (Villa Conferences on Energy, Materials and Nanotechnology, 2011), India (1st International Conference on Nanostructured Materials and Nanocomposites, 2009), Lithuania (14th International Symposium on Ultrafast Phenomena in Semiconductors, 2010; Advanced Optical Materials and Devices, 2011), Japan (the 12th International Conference on solid Films and Surfaces, 2005), and Ukraine (11th International Young Scientists Conference SPO-2010) and Latvia (5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials, 2011)and Plenary speaker at The International Conference Nanomaterials: Applications And Properties, 2012, Alushta, Ukraine .

Abstract:
Nowadays, nanostructures are one of the most investigated objects in semiconductor physics, especially due to Quantum confinement effect in quantum dots (0D), quantum wires (1D) and quantum wells (2D). A new laser technology elaborated for quantum cones formation in semiconductors is reported. A cone possesses the following unique properties: a small cone is a quantum dot – 0D and a long one is a quantum wire – 1D with the gradually decreasing diameter from the base till the top of the cone. Such quantum cone luminesces like rainbow. Everywhere radii of cone are equal or less than Bohr’ radius of electron, exciton or phonon Quantum confinement effect takes place. Quantum cones on the surface of elementary semiconductors Si and Ge single crystals, and on a surface of of Si1-xGex (x=0.3 and x=0.4) and Cd1-xZnxTe (x=0.1) solid solutions were formed by fundamental frequency and second harmonic of Nd:YAG laser radiation. Strong change of the optical, mechanical and electrical properties of the semiconductors after irradiation by Nd:YAG laser are explained by the presence of Quantum Confinement Effect (QCE) in quantum cones. “Blue shift” of photoluminescence spectra and “red shift” of phonon LO line in Raman spectrum are explained by exciton and phonon QCE in quantum cones, correspondently. Asymmetry of the photoluminescence band in the spectrum of Si quantum cones is explained by 1D graded band gap structure. Experimental data on quantum cones formation on a surface of Si, Ge and their solid solution and CdZnTe crystal and their optical properties are presented. Two-stage mechanism of quantum cones’ formation on a surface of the semiconductors is proposed. The first stage of the mechanism is characterized by the formation of a thin strained top layer, due to redistribution of point defects in temperature-gradient field induced by laser radiation. The second stage is characterized by mechanical plastic deformation of the stained top layer leading to arising of quantum cones due to heating up of the top layer. Formed quantum cones can be applied for design of third generation solar cells, Si white light emitting diode, photodetector with selective or “bolometer” type spectral sensitivity and Si tip for field electron emitting with low work function.

Stergios Logothetidis
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Title: Organic and printed Photovoltaics: Process and in-line optical monitoring
Biography:
Prof. Stergios Logothetidis is the Founder and Director of the Lab of Thin Films - Nanosystems & Nanometrology (LTFN, www.ltfn.gr) and the Center of Organic & Printed Electronics, at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece (AUTh). His research activity includes over 880 papers and review articles in international journals & conferences. He gave more than 150 invited talks and he is Editor of several books in Nanotechnologies, Nanomedicine and Organic Electronics. He coordinated and worked in more than 70 EU R&D projects in Nanotechnologies, Materials Science, Organic Electronics and Nanomedicine. He is director and founder of the Post-Graduate Program "Nanosciences & Nanotechnologies" of AUTh and Coordinator of the Thematic Research Network on Nanotechnologies and Nanobiotechnologies “NANONET” with >370 international members. Finally, he is organizer of the multi-event NANOTEXNOLOGY (www.nanotexnology.com) that combines two International Conferences, three International Summer Schools and one Exhibition on Nanotechnologies, Nanomedicine & Organic Electronics. He is founder and responsible of Hellenic Organic and Printed Electronic Association (HOPE-A) (www.hope-a.com) of more than 20 companies and 3 research institutes.

Abstract:
Organic and printed photovoltaics (OPVs) onto plastic substrates have attracted an enormous interest in the modern science & industry, due to their several advantages that include conformability to curved surfaces and potentiality for fabrication by low-cost production processes such as roll-to-roll (r2r) printing. One of the main factors that determines the achievement of high OPV efficiency is the optimization of the morphology of the photoactive layer, which is a blend of a polymer electron donor and a fullerene-based electron acceptor. Also, the optimization of the quality of the OPV printed nanomaterials (organic semiconductors, transparent electrodes, barrier nano-layers etc.) onto flexible polymer substrates is a prerequisite for the achievement of the required performance, efficiency and lifetime of OPVs that will enable their wide market exploitation. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the latest advances on the fabrication of advanced nanomaterials for OPV applications by r2r printing methods, in combination with laser scribing (in both sheet-to-sheet and roll-to-roll configurations) of the different OPV layers (transparent electrodes, photoactive layers, metal electrodes). The methodology for the combination of the different printing and structuring techniques will enable the low-cost fabrication of OE devices for several consumer applications. Also, we present the novel methodology for the combination of in-line Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) working in the near infrared to visible and far ultraviolet spectral region and Raman Spectroscopy (RS) for the robust investigation of the optical properties, morphology and bonding structure of r2r printed OPVs. Finally, we demonstrate the potentiality of SE and RS to be used as standard tools for the in-line robust determination of the thickness, optical and structural properties and the quality of other thin films and nanolayers for many organic and printed electronics applications.

Kholmurad Khasanov
M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia
Title: Sintez of nanopartical during gravitation of super compressibility
Biography:
Dr. Kholmurad Khasanov completed his doctoral thesis at the Department of gas and wave dynamics Mechanics mathematics faculty of Moscow State University named after Mikhail Lomonosov. He is currently working as a senior researcher, professor of this department. Opened the double helical stability does not in excess of the audio stream. The same phenomenon is found in excess compressibility. Published this phenomenon in top journals such as Physics Letters A, Journal of Modern Physics, Fluid dynamics and others. Participated at international symposia USA, India and Cairo.

Abstract:
Dynamic emitter - nozzle arranged along the axis of the conical central body - a new technical solution. Phenomena that arise in the course of his work are valuable and promising in the field of basic science and technology B and Nano. During our experiments with this device, we found gravitational excess compressibility during which the synthesis of nano particles We consider it very important and promising fact that the flow of the effluent from the dynamic transducer remains stable in form, and the direction of propagation of the jet. In our experiments, we have registered the phase transitions of air, argon and nitrogen in liquid and solid nano particles is very unusual, and provides a lot of technological capabilities. If in cases of water vapor transmission of the dynamic emitter created nano deal plasma with increased electron density, which provides the energy density in small quantities (in the structure of the nodes) and the high-energy radiation (experiments were detected electromagnetic fields up to 1 GHz). The results can be explained by the introduction of the concept of the photon-gravitational super-compressibility, which was the main goal of our work. The novelty of this phenomenon is the transformation of the energy of the gravitational field in the gravitational energy in excess compressibility. All these phenomena are very promising in the synthesis of nano-particles and nanotechnology.

Po-Liang Liu
National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan
Title: Defect Engineering in the Nanostructured Carbons for Hydrogen Storage
Biography:
Dr. Po-Liang Liu has completed his PhD from National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan and postdoctoral studies from Arizona State University, USA. His research results have been published in over 30 articles in peer-reviewed journals and international conferences. His research interests are in the field of thin-film growth, surface science, and hydrogen storages. He was invited to serve as the Keynote Speaker and Session Chair in 2014 International Conference on Applied Physics and Mathematics (ICAPM), Singapore and Conference Chair in 2015 ICAPM, South Korea. He is currently a Visiting Associate Professor in the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

Abstract:
Hydrogen is rich, clean, and pollution-free substitute energy. The nanostructured carbons, i.e., carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphene nanosheets, and nanotori, have widely gained attention for hydrogen storage. However, the solid-state hydrogen storage was limited success even after many years of research. Two of major problems encountered in the solid-state hydrogen storage approach are low surface binding energy (0.2–0.6 eV/H2) of hydrogen on the carbon surface and high penetration energy (16–25 eV) for the hydrogen entering the inside of the nanostructured carbons. In this presentation, we present ab initio calculations to find the migration pathways of the hydrogen atom through Stone-Wales defects into the inside of the double-shell fullerene. We report that the most favorable pathway consists of the tunneling pathway through Stone-Wales defects on the double-shell C60/C240 fullerene. This tunneling pathway gives rise to three barrier heights of 0.54 eV, 0.47 eV, and 0.7eV. The driving force for the hydrogen atom diffusion through the tunneling pathway towards the inside of the double-shell fullerene is 0.82 eV. Furthermore, we adopt multivacancy defects directly on the nanotorus C420 for hydrogen storage, thereby calculating the penetration barrier of 1.5 eV, 3.18 eV, and 3.31 eV for a H2 molecule entering the two-, four-, and six-atom vacancy of the C420 nanotorus, respectively. The driving force for the H2 molecule diffusion through the two-atom vacancy towards the inside of the C420 nanotorus is 0.29 eV. Our findings lead to a low energy pathway, which provides a practical route to develop newly solid-state hydrogen storages.

M. H. Fulekar
Central University of Gujarat, India
Title: Photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B dye using synthesised BiPO4 and Ag doped BiPO4 under the influence of UV-Visible irradiation in designed and developed reactor
Biography:
Dr. M. H. Fulekar is a Professor and Dean at School of Environment and Sustainable Development, and Coordinator of Special Centre for Nano Sciences, Central University of Gujarat. He was also professor and Head, University Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai. He has in his credit 250 numbers of research papers and articles published in international and national journals of repute. He is also author of 12 books. He has guided 15 Ph.D. and 10 MPhil students. As a Principal Investigator, he has completed Research Project: UGC, CSIR, BRNS, DBT R&D and Industrial projects. He has achieved “Who’s Who” in Science and Engineering USA in 1998; “Outstanding Scientist of the 20th Century” in 2000, from International Biographical Centre, Cambridge, England; Education Leadership award and International Award for Environmental Biotechnology. He is also a member of New York Academy of Sciences, USA and Indian Science Congress Association.

Abstract:
Dye and Dye-Stuff industry is a hazardous industry prescribed under the Hazardous Waste Management and Handling Rules 1989 as per the Environment Protection Act, 1986, India. The dye industry synthesizes dye and pigments which are commonly used in textile industries. During the synthesis of dye the hazardous waste generated consists of different dye waste compounds depends on the composition of basic raw materials used for synthesis. Rhodamine B is a common compound generally found in Dye hazardous waste. In the research study, the Rhodamine B has been selected for Photocatalytic Degradation using Nano-based synthesized materials. BiPO4 was synthesized by sonochemical method and Ag doped BiPO4 nanostructure was developed using bismuth/silver nitrate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate as precursors. Nanosynthesized BiPO4 and Ag doped BiPO4 was characterized by using XRD (for structure determination), SEM (for morphology), TEM (for particle size) and UV-vis DRS (for band gap measurement) study. The reactor was designed and developed wherein 20ppm of Rhodamine B in aqueous solution was taken with BiPO4 nanoparticles and photocatalytic degradation was studied under the influence of UV and Visible separately. After every 15 minutes the samples were withdrawn till the complete photocatalytic degradation takes place. Similarly, the nanostructure: BiPO4:Ag(x%) (x ¼ 2, 5, 10 and 20) was used for photocatlytic degradation of Rhodamine B (20ppm) in aqueous solution in photocatalytic reactor under the influence of UV-Visible irradiation separately. Aliquots- Samples were analysed by HPLC. The results are presented indicating the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B by BiPO4 and Ag doped BiPO4.. The photocatalytic degradation was found efficient and effective with Ag doped BiPO4 as compared to undoped BiPO4. Raman and FTIR analysis show the stability of photocatalyst. The nanostructure having smaller size and higher surface are played a major role in photocatalytic degradation of dye compound-Rhodamine B. The technique developed to degrade the dye compound and convert the parent compound into environment friendly compound by nanocatalyst as a photocatalytic degrader to clean up the environment.

Lucian Baia
Babes-Bolyai University, Romania
Title: Nanotechnology – A tool for improving the photocatalytic performances of TiO2 based nanomaterials
Biography:
Dr. Lucian Baia earned his Ph.D. degree in 2003 at the University of Würzburg, Germany. Since 2008, he works as Associate Professor at the Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Advanced Technologies at the Faculty of Physics of the Babes-Bolyai University. His current research focuses on the obtaining and characterization of porous and highly porous nanoarchitectures with controllable morphology and structure for environmental and biomedical applications. He is author or coauthor of more than 90 peer-reviewed publications (h-index: 16), three books, and three book chapters, and is serving as editorial board member for the following scientific journals: ISRN Nanotechnology, Journal of Material Science and Technology Research, Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics and Journal of Electrical & Electronics.

Abstract:
Besides the benefits and promises shown by titania as photocatalyst, a few drawbacks and weaknesses can be found, the most representative one being the relatively large band-gap (Eg ≥ 3 – 3.2 eV) that enables the absorption of less than 4-10 % of the solar radiation. In order to extend the absorbable light region to the visible domain and to increase the yield of absorption, the nano-coupling of titania with other semiconductors or noble metals like WO3 or Au/Pt, respectively, was intensively used in the last decades. It is known that a series of parameters such as the porosity, crystalline structure, surface groups or other surface particularities can drastically affects the photocatalytic performances. Recent publications report about the challenge to synthetize materials with controllable porosity, crystallinity or surface particularities as well as to obtain differently shaped semiconductors or noble-metal nanoparticles, a large variety of nanostructures with fascinating geometries being achieved with the final goal of improving the photocatalytic performances. In this respect, our interest is firstly focused on preparing in a controllable way, by various preparation methods, i.e. sol-gel, supercritical drying, hydrothermal, materials based on TiO2, WO3 and/or noble metals with different porosities, crystallinity and morphologies. Then, our purpose is directed to the assessment of their morphology and structure from the perspective of photocatalytic performances, the correlation of the most important aspects derived from the analyses performed being finally drawn. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the grants of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research MNT ERA_NET nr.7-065/26.09.2012 and PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0442.

C.L. Bianchi
Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy
Title: Photocatalytic Active tiles: A confirmed industrial reality facing a new challenge with LED lighting
Biography:
Dr. Claudia Bianchi is associated professor and the leader of the Process and Plants Research Group for Industrial Chemistry at the University of Milan. Author of 160 papers on International Journals in the field of applied material science and environmental catalysis. The Group involves Master and PhD students interested in different chemical and engineering areas with precise focuses on a) the preparation of micro- and nanostructured materials active in photodegradation processes for pollution control and environmental compliance; 2) the modification of the surface properties of solids; 3) the conversion of waste streams to value-added materials.

Abstract:
Environmental purification is a necessaryaspect of scientific researchto improve human life quality. Semiconductor photocatalysis, in particular TiO2 in the anatase form, was intensively investigated for its application to environmental pollutants degradation. A TiO2 photocatalyst that exhibits high activity for the oxidation of VOCs offers an economically and technically practical means to clean air and water. As secondary organic aerosols SOA represents one of the main PM constituents, the ability to break down its precursors would certainly lead to a reduction of PM concentration in the air. In literature, several studies propose linear correlations between NOx and PM10 values. Consequently, NOx degradation immediately contributes to PM reduction. New industrially produced photocatalyticporcelaingréstiles provide very good photocatalytic performance, but also meet standard requirements with respect to hardness, lack of porosity, vitrified surface and durability. In the preparation, a commercial micro-TiO2was employed to avoid the use of traditional nano-TiO2and face no drawbacks due to the possible nanorisks of nanopowders. Unfortunately, TiO2 strongly suffers from the low photocatalytic activity if it is used under visible light and not under UV light. Among the various possible modifications, the surface decoration with metal or metal oxides NPs can be a good strategy to increase the potential of TiO2 in the visible range. Asonochemical method that exploits the use of high-energy ultrasounds is here suggested to obtain this surface decoration. Samples were tested on the photodegradation of NOx, toluene and acetone in gas phase systems, using both UV and LED lamps.

Rengaraj Selvaraj
Sultan Qaboos University, Oman
Title: Towards green-nanotechnology: Removal of toxic organics present in water and wastewater
Biography:
Dr. Rengaraj Selvaraj is the Assistant Professor at Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman with responsibility for teaching, research and consultancy in the field of Analytical and Applied Environmental Chemistry particularly in the area of water and wastewater treatment. He is graduated from Anna University, Madras, India with a PhD in Chemistry in 1999. He has 20 years of research experience in Environmental Science and Engineering, particularly in the area of Environmental Nanotechnology, wastewater treatment, water quality analysis, and solid waste management. Recently he has been elected as one of the board of directors for Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health, USA. He has published more than 60 papers in reputed National and International Journals and Proceedings. He has participated and presented his research papers in several National and International conferences. He is having more than 12 years post PhD experience as Marie Curie Experienced Research Fellow, Visiting Professor, Brain Pool Scientist, Post-Doctoral Fellow, Contract Professor, and Visiting Scientist at different International Universities, United Nation University pilot program and Research Institutes at Finland, France, Oman, South Korea and Hong Kong. At present he is actively involving in the area of synthesis, characterization and application of nano structured photocatalysts for the removal of endocrine disruptor chemicals, toxic organics, NOx and heavy metals from water and wastewater. Also he is Editorial board member and peer reviewer for several International Journals.

Abstract:
Global environmental problems associated with harmful pollutants have received considerable attention in the past few decades. Clean water is essential to human health and also a critical feedstock in a variety of key industries including electronics, pharmaceuticals and food. The world is facing formidable challenges in meeting rising demands of clean water as the available supplies of fresh water is decreasing due to (i) extended droughts, (ii) population growth, (iii) more stringent health-based regulations, and (iv) competing demands from a variety of users. Scientists and engineers are questioning the viability of the current practice of meeting the water demands of all users according to increasingly stringent standards.In recent years, organic and toxic wastes particularly environmental endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) have greatly polluted the environment, and this stimulates the development of fundamental and applied research in the area of environmental remediation.EDCs are harmful even at extremely low concentration. Therefore, it is important to find innovative and cost-effective methods for safe and complete destruction of pollutants. Currently some conventional treatment technologies are employed for the treatment of water and wastewater. However, these techniques have some limitations and disadvantages. Most of these conventional waste treatment methods just transfer the contaminants from one medium to another and further treatment or disposal is required. Therefore the recent trend in treatment has moved from phase transfer to destruction of pollutants with advanced oxidation nanotechnologies (AONs).AON with Semiconductor photocatalysis is “Green” technology for the elimination of contaminants, especially for the degradation of organic pollutants into eco-friendly end product. Recently our research group have developed some visible light active nanostructured materials for the treatment of water and wastewater. Further, the applications of green nanotechnology for the treatment of toxic pollutants and separation, identification and quatification of enviromental samples by advanced analytical techniques will be discussed indetail during my lecture.

Carlos Alberto Carrero Marquez
University of Wisconsin Madison, USA
Title: Chemicals from Crude oil, Natural Gas and Biomass Using Nanocatalysis
Biography:
Carlos Carrero completed his Msc. from ULA, Venezeula. In 2005, he joined the Venezuelan oil company as a junior researcher working on the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles via hydrothermal decomposition of microemulsions for the catalytic upgrading of unconventional crude oil. Later, he completed his PhD in 2012 at the Technical University of Berlin, Germany working on kinetic investigation of tailored metal oxide catalysts. He then joined the Max Plank Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion as postdoctoral researcher focusing on both the synthesis of energy carriers and the oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes using industrial and carbon-based catalysts, respectively. Currently, he is postdoctoral fellow at the University of Wisconsin Madison working on natural gas and biomass upgrading using, among others, nanostructured catalysts. His aim is to develop fundamental and practical studies toward a better understanding of the physical and chemical events taking place during a catalytic reaction.

Abstract:
Nanocatalysis is one of the most exciting subfields of nanoscience. Nanocatalytic systems may appear as ultra-thin films, nanowires, clusters, or nanoparticles with chemical and physicial properties that are often controlled by quantum size effects, presenting new opportunities for an atom-by-atom design to tune and control the chemical activity and selectivity. Our work focuses on the size-dependent chemistry of bulk and supported metal and metal oxide species for the upgrading of different natural sources. Our central aim by using nanocatalysis is the promotion, enhancement, steering, and control of chemical reactions by changing the size, dimensionality, chemical composition, morphology, or charge state of both the catalyst and the active site. In particular, the role of the support material in changing the chemical and catalytic properties is thoroughly addressed in our studies. For the study of nanocatalysis in the nonscalable size regime, it is essential to control the preparation of the model systems with atomic precision, because in this range the catalytic properties are changing atom by atom. Therefore, acquiring the exact arrangement of atoms in a catalyst is an enormous experimental challenge. I´m going to present a couple of interesting cases where, by controlling the physical and chemical properties of the catalyst at the nanoscale, it is possible to (i) ensure the desired metal oxide species for natural gas upgrading and (ii) enhance the strong-metal-support-interaction (SMSI) for biomass upgrading.

Ncholu Manyala
University of Pretoria, South Africa
Title: High-performance electrochemical capacitors based on 3D porous carbon synthesized from cheap polymers and graphene foam
Biography:
Dr. Ncholu Manyala is Associate Professor and Deputy Chair of South African research chair initiative (SARChI) in Carbon Technology and Materials at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. He got his PhD from Louisiana State University working on low temperature transport and magnetic properties of strongly correlated materials where published two papers in Nature and one in Nature Materials in this field. His recent research interest is on graphene based materials and their applications in energy storage and sensing. He has published more than 20 papers in this subject. He is the member of International Society of Electrochemistry.

Abstract:
As a result of the depletion of fossil fuels and the issue of greenhouse gas emissions, cleaner sources of energy have been explored, such as solar and wind energies. Furthermore, new technologies for minimizing CO2 emissions are developing rapidly and need to be augmented by highly reliable energy storage devices such as supercapacitors or electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). The EDLCs have unique properties that are related to the primary charge storage harvesting mechanism, which relies on electrosorption of ions from an electrolyte onto a porous electrode. Carbon materials are the materials of choice for EDLCs applications and their advantages as electrode materials were reported in previous work. In this work we report on the hydrothermal synthesis of three-dimensional porous carbons with high specific surface area (SSA) based on graphene foam with two different polymers, namely polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The hydrothermal treatment resulted in a hydrogel which was further treated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) for activation; this was followed by carbonization to create a porous network of graphitic carbons. The effect of activation on the morphology and the SSA of the three-dimensional PVA-GF-PVP carbons produced, designated as 3D-PGP, were systematically studied. The electrochemical characteristics of the 3D-PGP exhibited superior supercapacitive performance with volumetric capacitance of 568 F cm-3,coupled with high energy and power densities. Moreover, no capacitance loss after 10,000 cycles was observed, owing to the unique structure and large surface area (3000 m2/g) of the active material. The outstanding performance of this material as electrode for supercapacitor shows great potential for its application in high-performance energy-related applications.

Roy Man-Keung Fung
Soochow University, China
Title: Hybrid Tandem White Organic Light Emitting Diodes for Energy-Efficient Lighting
Biography:
Prof. Roy Fung joined Soochow University in Jan 2014. Prof. Fung was born in Hong Kong, and has over 10 years of fundamental and applied research experience on nanomaterials and nanotechnology particularly organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), organic electronics, flexible electronics, and semiconductor surfaces and interfaces. Prof. Fung has published over 70 peer-reviewed SCI papers and 3 book chapters with more than 1,600 citations (H-index: 23). He has delivered more than 15 invited talks and lectures in international conferences and workshops, and is a reviewer of numerous SCI journals such as Organic Electronics, Applied Physics Letters, Chemical Physical Letters, Materials Science and Engineering B, etc. Prof. Fung has rich experience on OLED pilot line operation and clean room processing for the fabrications of full-color OLED display, white OLED lighting, transparent white OLED lighting, flexible OLED and its thin film encapsulation technology.

Abstract:
Long-lifetime and color-stable organic light emitting diodes with natural white color based on hybrid tandem structures are reported. The device consists of a charge generation layer sandwiched between a fluorescent blue emitting unit and a phosphorescent orange-green emitting unit. The color temperature and efficacy were varied by the concentration of the blue dopants and the thickness of the hole-blocking layer inserted between the electron injection layer and the electron transport layer in the blue emitting unit. Without extra outcoupling layer, a power efficiency of 30 lm/W and a remarkable half-life of 29,000 hours driven at a brightness of 1,000 cd/m2 were achieved. The lifetime data is one of the best ever reported. At that particular brightness, the device emits with a natural-white color with a C.I.E. (x, y) of (0.383, 0.381) and a color temperature of 4,000K. The color temperature is very stable ranging from 350 to 4,200 cd/m2. This brightness range covers the light source requirement for general lighting.

You Qiang
University of Idaho, USA
Title: Advanced Magnetic Separation Nanotechnology for Used Nuclear Fuel Recycling
Biography:
Dr. You Qiang is aProfessor of Physics at the University of Idaho, USA. He received his MS degree at Chinese Academy of Space Technology in 1985, and Ph.D. degree in 1997 at the University of Freiburg, Germany. His research is focusing on nanomagnetism and magnetic nanoparticles for more than 30 years. He applies the nanomaterials in nuclear energy and environmental science. He has published more than 110 refereed papers, given more than 120 invited talks at international conferences, universities and institutions, and served as editor for several international scientific journals, members for international conferences and society committees.

Abstract:
Nuclear energy is one of the best clean energywithout CO2pollution. One major concern is the disposal of the used nuclear fuel, any process for its disposal needs to have a minimal impact on the environment. Globally plutonium and uranium recovery is performed using the PUREX process. However, this comes with certain disadvantages like large quantities of separation reagents and the generation of significant volumes of secondary waste. With long term storage of used nuclear fuel, there is potential for contaminating ground water due to the performance of interim and long term geologic storage containers. Novel magnetic nanosorbents - surface functionalized magnetic nanoparticle conjugated with specific metal chelator - has been developed in our lab. The unique properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), such as extremely small size and high surface area to volume ratio, provide better kinetics for the adsorption of metal ions from aqueous solutions. The high magnetic susceptibility of MNPs aids in an efficient separation of particles from waste solution. In this work, we demonstrated the separation of minor actinides using complex conjugates of MNPs with DTPA chelator. The uptake behavior of Am(III), Pu(IV), U(VI), and Np(V) from 0.1M NaNO3 solution was determined experimentally. The sorption results show the strong affinity of DTPA towards Am(III) and Pu(IV) by extracting 97% and 80% of actinides, respectively. Magnetic separation nanotechnology provides an effective method for used nuclear fuel recycling as it is a simple, versatile, compact, and cost efficient process that minimizes secondary waste and improves storage performance.

Manjusha Shelke
CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, India
Title: Nano carbon composite electrode materials for energy storage
Biography:
Dr. Manjusha Shelke has completed Ph.D. from Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute (CSIR-AMPRI), Bhopal India. She is recipient of postdoctoral fellowship from embassy of France in India and worked at Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI), CNRS, France. She has been a visiting researcher at Rice University, Houston, USA as a recipient of Indo-US Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF) Post Doctoral Fellowship. She is a Scientist at CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory (CSIR-NCL), a premier research institute in India and has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals while leading a group researching on materials for various applications.

Abstract:
Efficiency of nanotechnology based energy conversion and storage devices is primary concern for clean energy applications. Different forms of nanostructured carbon are identified as potential electrode materials for energy storage devices like supercapacitors or batteries. Supercapacitor devices are important because of their higher power density, longer cycle life than secondary batteries and their higher energy density compared to conventional dielectric capacitors. However, electrode materials play crucial role in performance of supercapacitor. Graphitic nanostructures like carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, carbon nanofibers, carbon nanohorns (CNH), carbon nanoonions (CNOs) are being researched, either in an electric double layer capacitor as the carbon electrode or in pseudocapacitors that employ a composite of highly conducting carbon with a material such as metal oxides, polymers. This talk will focus on different strategies developed by us to synthesize high performance carbon nanocomposite electrode materials for supercapacitors. The results indicate that by using rationally designed electrode structure containing multifunctional components, such as graphene, CNOs, CNH etc the charge storage property of metal oxides could be improved dramatically. Effect of electrode material designs on specific capacity, energy density, and power density will be discussed.

Javier Rodríguez-Viejo
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain
Title: CMOS compatible planar thermoelectric microgenerator based on ultrathin Si membranes
Biography:
Javier Rodríguez Viejo is Full Professor of Applied Physics at the Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona (UAB), Spain. He leads the Nanomaterials and Microsystems research group that focus on thermal properties at the nanoscale. Prior to his present position he was a posdoctoral fellow at M.I.T. (USA) working with Prof. K.F. Jensen and M.G. Bawendi on the synthesis of highly-luminescent quantum dots. He has authored or co-authored around 100 scientific papers in ISI journals, such as NanoEnergy, PNAS, Phys. Rev. Lett., J. Phys. Chem. Lett and others. He has being the Principal Investigator of 25 competitive research projects. He is the Vicedirector of MATGAS, a research organization with partnership from Air Products, UAB and CSIC, representing UAB since March 2008.

Abstract:
Nanostructured semiconductors offer a promising route towards the fabrication of miniature chip-based TE devices. In particular, Si has emerged as a potential TE candidate since the discovery that small diameter NWs conduct heat like a disordered solid, maintaining reasonable values for both electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient. In this context, the fabrication of miniature chips formed by Si NWs arrays may yield efficient conversion devices. While bottom-up strategies for the synthesis of NWs allow the realization of highly-dense large-area arrays of NWs, they often lack enough reproducibility. Here, we present a planar TE microgenerator based on an ultrathin Si membrane with a high-density of n, p regions that can work up to T ~ 400oC. To obtain the appropriate doping level we carried out detailed TRIM simulations and multiple implantation and annealing experiments. Doping levels in the range of 1-5x1019 at/cm3 both in n and p-type regions are obtained and epitaxial re-crystallization of the 100 nm thick Si layer is reached during post-implantation thermal treatments. Suitable electrical contact resistances, i.e. 1.7x10-6 Ωcm2, were achieved by using 50-100 nm Ni thin layers and post-deposition annealing. The thermal conductivity of ultrathin Si membranes down to 8 nm thick has been measured using suspended structures. The large reduction in thermal transport and the robustness of the structure offers promising prospects for real applications. As a proof of concept, we have developed and tested several devices with ultrathin membranes (100 nm). Power efficiencies of 5 μW/cm2 and 4.5 mW/cm2 under temperature differences of 5 and 200 K are currently achieved in non-optimized devices.

Maher S. Amer
Wright State University, USA
Title: Gigantic Challenges, Nano-Solutions
Biography:
Dr. Amer is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, a von Humboldt Fellow, Max Planck Society, Germany, and a former Visiting Fellow of the Fitzwilliam College, University of Cambridge, England. Dr. Amer is a member of a number of national and international committees focused on nanomanufacturing and higher education accreditation. He received his Ph.D. from Drexel University 1995.

Abstract:
As we are rapidly approaching year 2050 and the population capacity of planet Earth, it becomes a must to, sooner better than later, face our gigantic challenges. It is widely known that our global stability is seriously threatened by the consequences of our depleting energy and clean water resources. Extensive scientific research over the past 15 years has shown that Nano-technology-based solutions hold promising answers to our pressing needs. However, It is very important to understand the thermodynamic fundamentals governing the structure and performance of such thermodynamic small systems especially their ability to selectively interact with certain chemical moieties and with electromagnetic radiation. Understanding such fundamentals will definitely lead to unique solutions for our pressing challenges. Nanostructured films and membranes engineered to selectively adsorb unwanted chemical, and biological species can provide a valuable solution for water treatment, desalination, and can definitely contribute to the world’s water and environmental challenge. In addition, photovoltaics batteries based on nanostructured fullerene films are also a very promising rout to explore when addressing energy challenges. In this talk, we will discuss both experimental and molecular simulation fundamental work, done in our research group, as related to Energy and water challenges.