International Conference on
Latest Trends in Biotechnology and Biodiversity
August 24-26, 2015, Dubai, UAE

Scientific Programme(Day 3 : Aug-26-2015)

Biodiversity, Energy Systems and Environmental Sustainability
Sustainable Energies and their Development

Session Introduction

Abdeen Mustafa Omer
Energy Research Institute (ERI), UK
Title: Bio-engineering for Pollution Reservation through Development of Bioenergy Management
Abdeen Mustafa Omer (BSc, MSc, PhD) is an Associate Researcher at Energy Research Institute (ERI). He obtained both his PhD degree in the Built Environment and Master of Philosophy degree in Renewable Energy Technologies from the University of Nottingham. He is qualified Mechanical Engineer with a proven track record within the water industry and renewable energy technologies. He has been graduated from University of El Menoufia, Egypt, BSc in Mechanical Engineering. His previous experience involved being a member of the research team at the National Council for Research/Energy Research Institute in Sudan and working director of research and development for National Water Equipment Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Sudan. He has been listed in the book WHO’S WHO in the World 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. He has published over 300 papers in peer-reviewed journals, 100 review articles, 7 books and 100 chapters in books.

This article discusses a comprehensive review of biomass energy sources, environment and sustainable development. This includes all the biomass energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce emissions. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biomass technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biomass technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas. This study highlights the energy problem and the possible saving that can be achieved through the use of biomass sources energy. Also, this study clarifies the background of the study, highlights the potential energy saving that could be achieved through use of biomass energy source and describes the objectives, approach and scope of the theme.

Nallamuthu Godhantaraman
University of Madras, India
Title: Sustainable Utilization and Management of Marine Biodiversity, Southeast coast of India
Dr. Nallamuthu Godhantaraman is a Deputy Director, UGC-Human Resources Development Centre and Faculty, Centre for Ocean and Coastal Studies, University of Madras, Chennai, India. He was the Director, UGC- Academic Staff College, University of Madras, Chennai for a period of two years. He was a Visiting Fellow at the Department of Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata He was a JSPS Post-doctoral Research Fellow at Hiroshima University, Japan, for a period of two years and he was also STA Post-doctoral Researcher at National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology (AIST), Japan during 2000-2002. He is a Senate Member - Middle East University, United Arab Emirates. He has published more than 25 research papers, participated and presented research papers at more than 40 national and more than 15 International conferences held in India and abroad. He visited Japan, USA, UK, Germany, France, Portugal, Singapore, Malaysia, China, Thailand and South Korea. He successfully completed a number of major research projects funded by UGC, CSIR (Co-Investigator), JSPS & STA Research Grant, Consultancy Project (Feasibility and EIA Study for the Oceanarium Project at Andaman Island); India-Taiwan S&T Cooperation –Joint Research Project (Member -Indian Team). He is serving as a member in professional bodies/committees. Further, he has organized more than 50 academic professional development programmes/courses for faculties of the higher educational institutions. He is an expert-cum-reviewer for more than 10 scientific journals published by Elsevier, Springer publishers, Indian Publishers, UK Publishers and Indonesian Journals.

Being a tropical biodiversity hotspot country, India possesses 15% of world biodiversity and has enormous potentials for a sustainable future world. As per its marine natural and living resources are concerned, India has a vast coastline of 8,118 km, with an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 2.02 million km2. This includes, 12 coastal states, 3651 fishing villages, continental shelf of 217,080 km2, world’s largest mangrove ecosystem (the Sundarban), coral reef ecosystems, two most productive seas (Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal) and a vast network of estuaries. Surprisingly, compared to other part of the worlds, India’s marine natural wealth has been relatively unexplored. Marine organisms can be used to produce several novel products that have applications in new medical technologies, in food and feed ingredients and as biofuels. Marine Biotechnology aims to develop methods for producing novel products originating from marine organisms; these are product that could contribute to human health care, to food and feed industries and to the energy industry, with applications as new biofuels. The potential of the oceans for these types of products is tremendous, but to date applications have fallen short of expectations. In my talk, I will present the status of marine biodiversity, with particular reference to Indian coastal marine ecosystems, based on the current research, past literature and other known sources of information. Further, my talk will set the stage for discussing the possible linking of marine biology and biotechnology for the sustainable utilization and management of marine bioresources.

University A. Mira of Bejaïa, Algeria
Title: Study of growth land reproduction of the land snail Helix aperta

Body growth and reproductive activity of Helix aperta snails were studied in laboratory conditions, from hatching to maturity at 15°C and 20°C, and under two photoperiods: 16h-Light /8h-Dark and 8h-Light/16h-Dark. Only temperature and photoperiod have significant effects on the final body weight; snails reared at 15°C grew slower, took more time to develop and reached a smaller adult body weight than those raised at 20°C. In contrast, the results showed some interaction between photoperiod and temperature on reproduction (length of reproductive activity, numbers of matings and layings) and revealed a predominant effect of photoperiod. Number of eggs per clutch was linked to body weight of snails. The best conditions for growth and reproduction of Helix aperta snails were the combination of a temperature of 20°C and a long-day photoperiod (16h L/8h D). Juvenile growth of Helix aperta snails was investigated under four combinations of temperature and photoperiod (20°C, 16hL:8hD ; 20°C, 8hL:16hD ; 15°C, 16hL:8hD and 15°C, 8hL:16hD) using two samples of young snails, all born in the laboratory, under controlled experimental conditions (20 ° C, long-photoperiod 16h light: 8h dark, 90 ± 5% RH ), but coming from different parents all collected from Bajaia (Northeastern Algeria) . For the first sample, the parents were collected in autumn during aestivation. The snails of the second batch come from parents collected nature in spring, at the end of hibernation.Rearing temperature had significant effects on body growth; snails reared at 15°C grew slower, took more time to develop and reached a smaller adult body weight than those raised at 20°C. Photoperiod length had also significant effects on the final body weight but not on the duration of the growth period; the durations of juvenile growth were exactly the same for the snails reared under the two photoperiods, in the two samples. However, the snails mean weights (17.53±0.07 to 17.8±0.17mg and 16.07±0.26 to 16.3±0.14mg respectively) were significantly heavier (P<0.001) in snails reared under long photoperiod than in those reared under short photoperiod. The season of birth had significant effects on juvenile growth rates, lengths of growth period and snails weight at adulthood of Helix aperta snails, the snails born in spring, characterised by heavier body weights at hatching, took less time to develop and reached a greater or similar adult body weight than those born in autumn. the snails born in spring and those born in autumn with different body weight at hatching were very dissimilar for their juvenile growth. That is, the season of birth has significant effects on all juvenile growth rates, lengths of growth period and snails weight at adulthood. owever, the snails mean weights (17.53±0.07 to 17.8±0.17mg and 16.07±0.26 to 16.3±0.14mg respectively) were significantly heavier (P<0.001) in snails reared under long photoperiod than in those reared under short photoperiod collected on February. In addition, this increase in eggs weight for the subjects collected on March was accompanied by a reduction in eggs number per clutch (292.75±11-313±8 in Sample 1 and 237±14 to 241.66±3.5). The reproduction performances, as reflected by mean numbers of clutches, were up to 7X or 16X weaker in snails sampled on winter (February and March) than, respectively, in snails collected on September or those acclimatized to laboratory conditions. This suggests that H. aperta snails reproduce very little in winter and spring (increasing days); they are rather adapted to reproduce in autumn (decreasing days and more favourable conditions of temperature, humidity and food).

Janmejay Pandey
Central University of Rajasthan, India
Title: Biochemical and molecular characterization of o-nitrobenzoate (ONB) sensitive mutant indicates for involvement of N-acetylglucosaminidase in bacterial resistance towards its elevated concentrations
Microorganisms capable of thriving under extreme environments are of great significance for basic as well as applied studies towards development of biocatalysts for bioremediation and other biotechnological process. Consequently, microorganisms showing survival under extreme environments have attracted considerable interest in recent past. Several studies have shown isolation and characterization of extremophilic microorganism. However, relatively fewer studies have reported isolation and/ or characterization of microorganisms from niches characterized by elevated concentration of anthropogenic, xenobiotic environment pollutants. Previously we have reported characterization of Arthrobacter protophormiae RKJ100 for its ability to tolerate extremely high concentrations of o¬-nitrobenzoate (ONB), a toxic xenobiotic environmental pollutant. The physiological responses of strain RKJ100 to ≥30 mM ONB indicated towards a resistance mechanism manifested via alteration of cell morphology and cell wall structure. During the present study we focused on characterization of gene(s) involved in the resistance of strain RKJ100 towards extreme concentrations of ONB. Random transposon mutants of strain RKJ100 were generated and screened for ONB sensitive phenotype. A sensitive mutant was defined as one which exhibits sensitivity towards ONB at ≥30 mM. Molecular and biochemical characterization of this mutant showed disruption of endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (ENGase) gene. ENGase is a non-essential enzyme involved in oligosaccharide processing and cell wall recycling many life forms. It has been shown to have role in cellular homeostasis. Results obtained during this study present first evidence for its role in bacterial resistance towards elevated concentrations of toxic xenobiotic compound.

Janmejay Pandey has completed his Ph.D in year 2009 from Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH- CSIR), Chandigarh and the degree was awarded by Jawahar Lal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi. Subsequently he completed postdoctoral studies from Gordon Centre for Integrated Science, University of Chicago, USA and School of Medicine, Georgia Health Sciences University (GHSU), USA in 2012. Currently, he is working as an Assistant Professor at Department of Biotechnology, Central University of Rajasthan. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member/ Reviewer for Journals of repute.

Hamed A Elserehy
King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Title: The Marine caravan invading the two big seas of the Red Sea and the Mediterranean through the Maritime Suez Canal
Hamed A. El-Serehy is a professor of biodiversity at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia and a professor of Oceanography at Suez Canal University, Egypt. At present he is a full professor at Distinguished Scientist Felloship Prgram at KSU. He holds a PhD in Marine Biology from Southampton University and was a Research Fellow in Molecular Biology at Copenhagen University, Denmark. He has published 70 articles devoted to the Taxonomy and Ecology of a wide range of taxa, and to wetland conservation, and aquatic ecosystem health and management in reputed journals. Over the last 20 years, his research has focused on the biodiversity and conservation of wetlands with an interest in biological associations, biogeography, functional ecology, and global changes, and serve as consultant/member to several Conservation bodies (MSEA-EEAA, Egypt, Aquatic ecosystem health and Management Society, Canada).

The Suez Canal is a transitional zone that links two different basins: the Indo-Pacific Red Sea basin and the Atlanto-Mediterranean basin, and, in so doing, reconnects two biogeographical provinces, the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, that had been partially separated since the early Miocene and completely separated since the late Miocene. This, in its turn, has influenced the fauna and flora of the canal. On its route from the Mediterranean in the north to the Red Sea in the south, Suez Canal crosses three different lakes which represent different habitats, and in some cases, hinder the migration of the fauna and flora from one sea to the other. Plankton species–specific abundance was determined at monthly intervals from 10 stations in the Suez Canal. A total of 280 species were recorded in the canal water, all of indo-Pacific in origin. Some of these species have been introduced to the Mediterranean, while others are new geographical record for the Suez Canal. Most species exhibited a seasonal cycle with low winter and high spring and summer densities. Planktonic affinities and differences between the eastern Mediterranean and the Red Sea were discussed in the light of the results of distribution studies of the 280 species of plankton carried out over a multi-year survey. These observations point to the role of the canal as a selective barrier and/or as a link in the migration of planktonic organisms. While cases of migration from one sea to the other are more likely to occur in either direction, those concerning species of indo-pacific origin are more successful and numerous. Meanwhile, the Suez Canal acts as a local endemic habitat by itself.

T. Komang Ralebitso-Senior
Teesside University,UK
Title: How Understanding Microbiological Dynamics will Ensure Sustainable Biochar Application
Dr Komang Ralebitso-Senior completed her PhD with the University of Natal, South Africa and Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. She is Senior Lecturer in Molecular biology at Teesside University and has published over 53 papers in refereed journals and international conferences. In addition, she is a member of the Editorial Board of Frontiers in Environmental Science, a Guest Editor of BioMed Research International (Environmental Biotechnology Special Issue) and has reviewed for several international journals including Biodegradation, Journal of Applied Microbiology, Plant Physiology & Biochemistry, Soil Biology & Biochemistry, Bioscience Horizons, Water Research, Environmental Science & Technology and International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation.

Biochar – charcoal used to supplement soil and sequester carbon – has been given catchy descriptors such as “Black is the New Green” and “Biochar as the new black gold”. These encapsulate its, as yet, unrealised potential to address the ever growing challenges of climate change mitigation, contaminant attenuation and the global demand for increased agricultural productivity. Although the interactions between biochar and soil microbial populations are recognised, a considerable paucity of knowledge exists of microbial diversity and functional responses to biochar addition. Its distinctive physical, chemical and biological properties have, however, highlighted tremendous exploitation potential in key sustainable biotechnologies, which are underpinned by complex interacting microbial communities. Unfortunately, its strong sorptive properties can lead to biases in total microbial activity assessments. As a consequence, definitive investigations of sustainable contemporary applications of biochar-based (bio)technologies must be underscored by combined physico-chemical and microecophysiological analyses. This paper will explore on-going and future cross-disciplinary work and appraise critically: progress to date; shortfalls and lessons learnt; cutting-edge multi-disciplinary interphases; critical mass creation; and an inseparable biochar+microbiology outlook. Naphthalene, bioremediation, odorant gas biofiltration, wastewater treatment and the N-cycle will provide specific contexts.

Zain ul Abdin
University of Agriculture, Pakistan
Title: Biodiversity of parasitic hymenoptera offers a natural source of novel genes/peptides for the development of sustainable plant protection strategies: Biotechnological and entrepreneurial approaches
Dr. Zain, an entomologist by profession with over 10 years of experience in teaching, research and community service working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan and Project Leader of sveral problem oriented competitive research grants. He obtained his Ph.D degree from University of Basilicata, Potenza, ITALY. He also received Gold and Silver Medals from the Govt. of Pakisatn for his academic distinction. He presented R&D work at several international conferences (UK, Poland and Italy). He has the honour to be a fellow of Royal Entomological Society, UK.

Biodiversity of the fauna of indigenous insect parasitoids offers an impressive opportunity to identify novel genes/peptides as an alternatives to synthetic insecticides for insect control in agriculture, as insect pests are an increasing problem in agriculture and with a projected increase in world population to 10 billion over the next four decades; an immediate priority for agriculture is to achieve maximum production of food and other products in a manner that is environmentally sustainable and cost-effective. The insecticides of synthetic origin are largely recognized as potent tools for insect control, which, however, have well-known impact on the environment and non-target organisms and a high dependence on toxic chemicals in agriculture poses environmental and health risks. Among the most promising alternatives to chemical pesticides are the use of biotechnology-based natural products or organisms for pest suppression. Key factors responsible for the mortality of other harmful insects are present in the female secretions of the wasp injected at the oviposition, which include the venom, ovarian fluid and polydnavirus. A profile of total proteins present in the venom of the wasp Bracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenotera, Braconidae) a larval ectoparasitoid of several Pyralid (Lepidoptera) pests was obtained by SDS-PAGE and its biological activity was determined by protease/Trypsin digestion. Isolation of the genes encoding bioactive venom protein was performed by RT-PCR and recombinant proteins were produced by cloning/expression in E.coli and their insecticidal activity was evaluated on target and non target organisms. This basic work has generated a valuable information which later on may be exploited for the development of novel insect control strategies to save the biodiversity of our agricultural crops.

Mohammed Sghir Taleb
Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Morocco
Title: Biodiversity in Morocco: Importance, threat and conservation

Located at the northwest corner of the African continent between 21 ° and 36 ° north latitude and between the 1st and the 17th degree of west longitude, Morocco with a total area of 715,000 km2 enjoys a privileged position with a coastline of 3 446 km long opening to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean. Its privileged location with a double coastline and its diverse mountain with four major mountain ranges: the Rif, Middle Atlas, High Atlas and Anti Atlas with altitudes exceeding 2000 m in the Rif, 3000 m in the Middle Atlas and 4000 m in the High Atlas. Morocco is characterized by an important forest genetic diversity represented by a rich and varied flora and many ecosystems: forest, preforest, presteppe, steppe, Sahara that spans a range of bioclimatic zones: arid, semiarid, subhumid and humid. The vascular flora of Morocco has 3913 species and subspecies in 1298 (including 426 sub-species types), distributed among 155 families and 981 genera. The number of endemic species amounted to 640 (16%) and 280 subspecies (32%). The rare or endangered flora species is estimated to be 463 and 1284 subspecies. However, this diversity is subjected to many natural pressures (climate change, parasitic attacks…) and antropic pressures (clearing, overgrazing etc.). Conscious of the risks that weigh on biodiversity, Morocco set a strategy of biodiversity management that focus on programs of in-situ conservation and more 154 protected areas in Morocco are proposed for a management of their natural resources. This presentation is focused on ecological diversity, flora and ecosystems of Morocco while focusing on the major threats and conservation strategies developed by Morocco.