International Conference on
Latest Trends in Biotechnology and Biodiversity
August 24-26, 2015, Dubai, UAE

Scientific Programme(Day 2 : Aug-25-2015)

Microbiology and Microbial World
Petroleum and Environmental Biotechnology
Session Chair:
Vandana B. Patel
Babaria Institute of Pharmacy, India


Session Introduction

Vandana B. Patel
Gujarat Technological University, India
Title: HA-SWFI-Herbal Antibiotics: A safer & effective way to fight infection
Biography:
Dr. Vandana B. Patel is M. Pharm., Ph. D. from The M. S. University of Baroda. Presently she is working as Professor and principal at Babaria Institute of Pharmacy, affiliated to Gujarat Technological University. She has vast knowledge and expertise of 23 years in the field of pharmaceutical research. She is a recipient of JRF, SRF and research grants from GUJCOST. She has guided 41 PG and 2 Ph. D. projects. There are more than 60 research publications to her credit in various reputed national and international journals. She is deeply involved in Industry collaboration handling various consultancy projects.

Abstract:
Herbal antibiotics are safer and effective alternative to treat microbial infection. A well designed and properly used herbal formulation causes very few side effects to the people as compared to the people who are harmed everyday with the use of pharmaceuticals. The main problem associated with the antibiotic treatment is side effects and resistance. Hence people need a better and effective option. As herbs are mixture of many constituents, its action is complex and it destroys pathogens through multiple mechanisms, which can reduce the terror of resistance by notorious microorganisms. Our polyherbal product is a nano colloidal technology invented based product. It is based on the principle of “Quantum Electro Mechanical Physics”. This product is combination of various herbs & herbal oils. It acts as a broad spectrum bactericidal. It was found to be safe up to the dose level of 0.4 ml/100 g body weight of female wistar rats in Acute Oral Toxicity Study (OECD 420 guidelines) that is equivalent to human dose of 44.44ml/70 Kg. Results of skin sensitization study revealed that the product was found to be non-irritant on intact skin. In antimicrobial study, the product was found to be effective against various highly infectious microorganisms like Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Plasmodium falciparum, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, MRSA, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Escherichia Coli & Staphylococcus aureus etc. It indicates that this polyherbal product has the potential to be developed as potent herbal antibiotic. Currently further studies are going on for detailed investigation.

Azeezat Jolaoso
Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Nigeria
Title: The use of natural preservative(ginger and ascorbic acid) in extending the shelf-stability of oso (a lesser-known fermented legume of cathormionaltissimum)
Biography:
Mrs Jolaoso Adeola Azeezat did her B.Sc and M.Sc at the Federal university of Agriculture,Abeokuta,Ogun State.Nigeria and currently undergoing her Ph.D at the same university.She has published several research articles.Her research interest is in food and industrial microbiology. She is currently a senior Lecturer at the science laboratory department,Moshood Abiola Polytechnic,Ojere.Abeokuta.

Abstract:
Oxidative rancidity is a problem envisaged in all legumes containing fat.Therefore,one of the major components of oso(fermented seeds of Cathormion altissimum) is fat which is susceptible to oxidative rancidity. The fear of the side effects of most synthetic anti-oxidants has brought about the use of ginger, ascorbic acid and salt as alternatives preservatives.5g of oso (fermented seeds of Cathormion altissimum) was treated with 0.5ml aqueous extract of freshly prepared ginger extract giving 1600ppm and 2400ppm ginger extract,250ppm and 500ppm ascorbic acid The free fatty acid and peroxide value were used to quantify anti-oxidant activity of oso stored at ambient temperature of 30oc.The aerobic mesophilic count were also determined to monitor whether microbial load increases or decreases. At 1600ppm of ginger, 44.4% reduction in free fatty acid was observed and a significant reduction (P<0.05) in peroxide value was also noted. A decrease of 68.9% was also observed in free fatty acid at 2400ppm.The samples treated with ascorbic acid also exhibited significant decrease(p<0.05) in free fatty acid and peroxide values at various concentrations.

T.V. Rajya Lakshmi
University of Modern Sciences, UAE
Title: Attempts to use Chlorella Pyrenoidosa as Bio-fertilizer for the cultivation of crops in UAE Soils
Biography:
Dr. Rajya Lakshmi completed her PhD degree at the age of 30 years from Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India. She did her Post Doctoral research work in Indian Institute of sciences, Bangalore, India. She has 18 years of research and teaching experience; worked in different institutes- Andhra University, Indian Institute of sciences, Directorate of Rice Research, India and Manipal University and Shalimar Biotech Industries, Dubai. She is working as Assistant Professor in University of Modern Sciences, Dubai. She published many research papers in International and National journals and in International Symposia and conferences.

Abstract:
Soil salinity is a threat to agricultural crops and only salt tolerant/ resistant crops need to be cultivated in saline soils. More than 80 per cent of UAE soil is sandy, restricting the survival and yield of salt tolerant crops that are grown in these soils. An alternative approach to meet this challenge is to supplement the soil with fertilizers that enable the salt sensitive crops to survive in saline soils. The purpose of the present study is to culture green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa in the laboratory and also in the filed conditions and use the live algal cells as biofertilizer. The C.pyrenoidosa cells could be retrieved in a week from the tablets from Sun chlorella A under field conditions. The Chlorella pyrenoidosa cells were verified to be Chlorella cells with specific molecular markers. The growth of revived C. pyrenoidosa cells was best in Bold’s basal medium, which could withstand a temperature up to 40ºC and salinity of 0.01% NaCl. Seed germination in Petri plates and also seedling growth in pots for a month was studied for four types of crops- rice, cucumber, egg plant and lettuce. Although bioferitlizer irrigation seem to affect seed germination only in cucumber, the overall growth of seedling and chlorophyll content of was enhanced in all four crops. The pilot study suggests that some vegetable crops may be grown in UAE saline soils with Chlorella cells as biofertilizer.

Zhichao Xu
Peking Union Medical College, China
Title: Applying a combined sequencing approach to illuminate tanshinone biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza root tissues
Biography:
Zhichao Xu received his Master’s degree in Fermentation engineering from Jilin Agricultural University in 2012. Since 2013, he is studying for doctor’s degree in pharmacognosy from Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College.

Abstract:
Danshen, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, is one of the most widely utilized herbs in traditional Chinese medicine, wherein its rhizome/roots are particularly valued. The corresponding bioactive components include the tanshinone diterpenoids, whose biosynthesis is then a subject of considerable interest. Previous investigations of the S. miltiorrhiza transcriptome have relied on short-read next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, and the vast majority of the resulting isotigs do not represent full-length cDNA sequences. Moreover, these efforts have been targeted at either whole plants or hairy root cultures. Here we demonstrate that the tanshinones pigments are produced and accumulate in the root periderm, and apply a combination of NGS and single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing to various root tissues, particularly including the periderm, to provide a more complete view of the S. miltiorrhiza transcriptome, with further insight into tanshinone biosynthesis as well. In addition, use of SMRT long-read sequencing offered the ability to examine alternative splicing, which was found to occur in approximately 40% of the detected gene loci, including several involved in isoprenoid/terpenoid metabolism.

Shagufta Kamal
Govt. College University, Pakistan
Title: Alkaline protease: From hyper production to industrial exploitation
Biography:
Dr. Shagufta Kamal has completed her Ph.D at the age of 25 years from University of Agriculture. Recently she is working as Incharge ORIC of Biochemistry section and also the member of BOS in Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Govt. College universiry, Faisalabad, Pakistan. She has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.

Abstract:
Proteases, responsible for proteolysis are vitally important for life and engaged with vast industrial applications. According to bio-informatics, protease also constitutes approximately 2% of total human genome. Extracellular protease is also highly exploitable enzyme in various industries. Among all extracellular proteases, alkaline protease is robust and most extensively used enzyme in industries and commercially available with the trade name of Savinase, subtilisin Carlsberg and subtilisin BPN′. Mutations and immobilization revealed a novel protease production strategy with superior catalytic efficiency and advance constancy towards pH or temperature and vast literature exists on biological activities of protease but insufficient literature exists on the nutritional effects and physicochemical parameter for fermentative production of protease, which offers new possibilities and potentials to fulfill the industrial demands of enzymes. This article focuses on the updated tidings on nutritional effects, physicochemical parameters, biochemical aspects and strain improvement methods for hyper production of protease.

Azeezat Jolaoso
Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Nigeria
Title: Enzyme profiles of potential starter culture for the fermented seeds of cathormion altissimum (oso)
Biography:
Mrs Jolaoso Adeola Azeezat did her B.Sc and M.Sc at the Federal university of Agriculture,Abeokuta,Ogun State.Nigeria and currently undergoing her Ph.D at the same university.She has published several research articles.Her research interest is in food and industrial microbiology. She is currently a senior Lecturer at the science laboratory department,Moshood Abiola Polytechnic,Ojere.Abeokuta.

Abstract:
Thirty –eight strains of micro-organisms were isolated from the fermented seeds of Cathormion altissimum.Amylase,protease and phytase activities were determined using the diameter of zone of inhibition.Qualitative enzymatic activities of twelve (12) species from the results of zone of inhibition were then subjected to enzymatic studiesby using the Analytical profile index kits(APIZYM,Biomerieux, France) commercial system. Enzymatic activity of each species of organisms was determined and recorded to show the specific activity of each specie of organism during fermentation.Species of Bacillus substilis (HYS12), Bacillus licheniformis (HYS8), Staphylococcus aureus (HYS30) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (LY1) were discovered to be potential micro-organisms for starter culture fermentation of Cathormion altissimum to oso.

Muhammad Adeel
Forman Christian College, Pakistan
Title: Comparative study of different strains of Pseudomonas and their effects on the growth of corn (Zea mays L.)
Biography:
Muhammad Adeel has completed his M.Phil Biotechnology from Forman Christian College (A Chartered Univrsity), Lahore, Pakistan where he was the University Valedictorian and was awarded an academic excellence grant from DuPont Pioneer for M.Phil. He is currently the Manager of Pakistan Biotechnology Information Center-Lahore Chapter, an organization designed to promote and advocate issues related to regulation of Biotechnology. He has two international publications and has been a prominent public speaker at forums such as TEDx and parliamentary debates. His research interests include agricultural biotechnology and microbes for sustainable development.

Abstract:
Bacterial isolates characterized as P. aurantiaca (Type strain, PB-St2 and ARS-38), P. chlororaphis (RP-4), P. putida (OKST, BNST and QR-2) and P. fluorescens (PB-CST) have been evaluated for their ability to promote growth in corn plants. The study compared P. aurantiaca and P. chlororaphis isolates based on biochemical profiles, quorum quenching and phylogenetic analysis. The secondary metabolite production of P. aurantiaca isolates was also compared through TLC and Mass spectrometry profiles. The results of biochemical profiles showed the presence of ortho-Nitrophenyl-β-galactosidase, arginine dihydrolase, cytochrome oxidase and catalase enzymes in all four strains. All three P. aurantiaca strains (Type strain, PB-St2 and ARS-38) showed the ability to produce quorum quenching compounds. Comparison of secondary metabolites production of P. aurantiaca Type strain, PB-St2 and ARS-38 showed presence of commercially important compounds such as 2-hydroxy phenazine, Phenazine, 1-carboxylic acid, Viscosin, Acyl homoserine lactones and bactericidal peptides. The study has potential in terms of identifying potential biofertilizers as well as secondary metabolites of economic importance in biocontrol products. All eight isolates promoted plant growth and showed improvement in root and shoot length, area and biomass. 20-25% increment was observed in root length, 8-20% in shoot length, 30-39% in root area, 8-30% in shoot area, 34-55% in root fresh weight, 40-53% in shoot fresh weight, 42-57% in root dry weight, 40-60% in shoot dry weight when compared with control plants. P. aurantiaca PB-St2 and ARS-38, and P. putida QR-2 showed maximum significant values for all four parameters, indicating their ability as potential biofertilizers.

Asma Hanif
University of Karachi, Pakistan
Title: Prevalence of Hepatitis C among population of low socio economic areas in Gadaptown, Pakistan
Biography:
Asma Hanif is currently doing MPhil leading to PhD since2012. She has completed her Honors& Masters in Microbiology in 2005 from Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi. She has also done her Masters in Human Resource Management in 2010 from Department of Public Administration, University of Karachi to strengthen her managerial skills. She received one year professional training in Medical Technology from Aga Khan University and Hospital in 2006 and worked in molecular pathology section as medical technologist in 2007 and also have written an article on Genetic analysis of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy published in Labrad , a laboratory Magazine by Aga Khan University and Hospital. She then joined Public Sector Hospital in 2008 as Molecular biologist and serve Molecular Path Lab till Dec2014 .From Jan 2015 serving Karachi Metropolitan Corporation, Food and Quality Control Department as Director Food Lab and determine the quality of raw food manufactured and sold in Karachi Pakistan. She has participated in numerous workshops at national and international platform. She is so an active member of American Society of Microbiology and organize events at national level to promote Microbiology under supervision of country Ambassador ASM Prof Dr Shahana Urooj Kazmi.

Abstract:
In Pakistan approximately 10 million people were infected with HCV.The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of HCV in population of lowsocio-economic area of ManghopirGadaptown.This was an observational study conducted in KMC Leprosy Hospital from March 2008 till May 2011. A total of 536 serum samples were analyzed for hepatitis C Virus using real time PCR technique.Out of 536 patients 210(39%) were males, 326 (61%) were females. The overall prevalence of HCV in the study was recorded as 285 (53%).Prevalence among female participants were higher 184 (56%) comparatively to males 101 (48%).In low socio economic area due to lack of awareness and implementation of international standards like blood transfusion, reuse of needles and syringes, injecting drug users, tattooing, shaving from barbers, unsterilized dental and surgical instruments and procedures are the main source of transmission of Hepatitis. So it is concluded from our study that regardless of the age , due to unhygienic practices and lack of awareness ,the disease prevalence is higher in less privileged areas of Pakistan especially Manghopir Gadaptown. Considering these factors it is of utmost importance to conduct awareness program through health care workers to improve health standards.

Nain Tara
University of Karachi, Pakistan
Title: Prevalence of Hepatitis D Virus in Sindh & Punjab Epidemiological Survey
Biography:
Nain Tara did her Bsc in Medical lab technology ,from Punjab university Lahore Pakistan, and did her masters form Karachi university, she worked in cancer hospital and research center, in (NARC) national Agriculture and research center, currently working in a private organization Rahila Research and Reference lab PVt as Biosafety /research associate .

Abstract:
Hepatitis D virus or delta virus (HDV) is a small, defective RNA virus that can infect only individuals who have hepatitis B virus which acts as the carrier host. The prevalence of HDV antibodies in Pakistani hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive individuals is approximately 16.6%. So there is a pool of at least 800,000 anti-HDV positive HBsAg positive individuals in the country. Although the prevalence of hepatitis virus infections in Pakistan is still unknown, limited data indicate that the exposure rate to HBV is 35-38% with 4% being carriers and 32% having anti-HBV surface antibodies through natural conversion. Studies in Pakistan have shown that the prevalence rate of HDV is 4.8-14% for, and that it is continuously increasing. Hence there is an urgent need to create awareness about the prevalence of both hepatitis B and D, and to develop preventive measures aimed at minimizing the prevalence of these diseases in the country.

Marina Ross
Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK
Title: Anti-angiogenic potential of bovine colostrum
Biography:
Marina Ross currently on her last year of PhD in transparent study specializing in Food Science, Cell Biology and Immunology at School of Health Sciences, Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK.She received her first degree at the Cooperative University,Russia and her MSc degree in Food Science at University of Wales Institute Cardiff, UK.

Abstract:
Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature. The vascular network delivers oxygen (O₂) and nutrients to all cells within the body, and the constant supply of oxygen is crucial for development, homeostasis and functions of all tissues. Tissue oxygenation is controlled by a balance between O₂ supply, delivery and demand generated by metabolic outputs of tissues. Under normal physiological conditions, cells in the adult human body provided with adequate supply of O₂ to meet its metabolic demand to nourish, support growth and repair of all tissues.Under uncontrolled conditions, angiogenesis promotes tumour, retinopathies and inflammatory disorders, while inadequate angiogenesis can lead to coronary artery disease. Hypoxia occurs when changes in supply and demand become imbalanced.Cellular transcriptional responses to low oxygen, or hypoxia are mediated by Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIF) that controls the expression of numerous antigenic, metabolic and cell cycle genes.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) plays a central role in angiogenesis and neovascularisation by increasing the delivery of oxygen and energy substances to cells and is regulated by HIF. Individual compounds found in colostrum are shown to inhibit angiogenesis. The synergistic effect of bovine colostrum on HECV human endothelial cell line under hypoxic conditions was tested.In-Vitroangiogenic assays show inhibiting effects of colostrum on tube formation and invasion. The result shows that colostrum has potential as anti angiogenic and possibly anticancer agent. TheqPCRresults suggest that the action is mediated through the knockout of HIF-1a and inhibition of VEGF genes.

Carmelo Majorana
University of Padova, Italy
Title: Multiscale analysis of concrete as a biological shielding material against nuclear radiation
Biography:


Abstract:
The overall thermo-hygro-mechanical behavior of concrete is to be investigated, because its bearing capacity is required together with its shielding properties, specifically when concrete structures are exposed to high-energy neutron fluxes, which represent the next generation facilities designed for the production of high energy radioactive ion beams in physics research. Irradiation in the form of either fast and thermal neutrons, primary gamma rays or gamma rays produced as a result of neutron capture, are learnt to affect concrete as well as neutron fluences of the order of 1019 n/cm2 and gamma radiation doses of 1010 rad seem to become critical for concrete strength. The collection of data on concrete samples, variously exposed to neutron radiation, has allowed for defining a law for radiation damage within the FEM research code NEWCON3D, assessing the 3D coupled thermo-hygro-mechanical behavior of concrete, modeled as a multiphase porous medium, both at the macroscale and the mesoscale level. The required damage law is thought to be a function of the neutron flux impinging the concrete shielding wall, and a good estimate of this quantity has been provided by means of a Monte Carlo code developed by CERN and the National Institute of Nuclear Physics of Milan, Italy; this code handles radiation transport calculations and represents at this day one of the most reliable procedures for dealing with the interaction of radiation and matter. The suggested procedure for the radiation damage evaluation has allowed for discussing on differences between mesolevel and macrolevel approaches. Stochastic contour maps of the expected radiation field, properly interfaced with the numerical FE code, have allowed for obtaining a more precise evaluation of the radiation damage front as well as its evolution in time.

Management of environment and water resources
Current Issues and Measures

Session Introduction

Waseem Akram
University of Agriculture, Pakistan
Title: Advances in dengue monitoring and vector management will help to minimize losses to biodiversity
Biography:


Abstract:
Dengue spread and incidence has been alarming since the past few years starting from 2011 to 2014. Every year more and more efforts are being made to combat the problem and thus maintain the overall number of suspected, confirmed and deaths to the lowest possible level. A system of monitoring vector and disease response was designed in 2011 and is in place with improvements. The system includes a data base which is generated by real time data entered by experts, hospital staff, technicians, spray men and those associated with dengue management. The system provides up to date information on the hot spots, vector situation, interventions adopted along with the number of cases suspected, probable and confirmed in categories of DF, DHF and DSS. Case responses with respect to WHO protocols are carried out which includes the surveillance of the area followed by treatment in terms of indoor residual sprays, larviciding and mechanical elimination of the breeding areas. Epidemiological record of the cases with respect to hospitals, union councils, districts is also entered in electronic complaint routing system to identify the high risk areas during the season and observe the trend of the disease during various seasons and times. Meanwhile the dengue tracking system provides up to date information on dengue vector, climatic components like rainfall and temperature besides updating the trends of vector build up in various localities. The system provides time line information on all the preventive steps taken. The data reports a marked decrease in the number of suspected, probable and confirmed cases along with deaths after the 2011 epidemic when the system was not in place. The over all impact of this tracking system has ultimately improved the efficacy of the preventive interventions and thus minimized the haphazard use of chemicals thereby reducing the economic burden. The present advancement is also likely to prevent biodiversity losses being hit as a result of the environmental burdens.

Safdar Bashir
University of Agriculture, Pakistan
Title: Anaerobic biotransformation of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers by Dehalococcoides species
Biography:


Abstract:
The biotransformation of hexachlorohexane (HCH) by two Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains and anenrichment culture was investigated. The D. mccartyi cultures preferentially degraded γ-HCH over α-HCH and δ-HCHisomers while β-HCH biotransformation was not significant. D. mccartyi strain 195 was capable of growth with γ-HCH as terminal electron acceptor, however, only after initial cultivation with tetrachloroethene. The enrichment culture preferentially transformed γ-HCH over the δ-HCH,β-HCH and α-HCH isomers. Major observed metabolite was tetrachlorocyclohexene and as end products monochlorobenzene (MCB) and benzene. Carbon stable isotope analysis confirmed the similarity in degradation pathways under anoxic conditions with the enrichment factor εc = -5.5 ± 0.8 ‰ for D. mccartyi strain 195, εc= -3.1 ± 0.4 ‰ for the γ-HCH enrichment culture and εc= -4.1 ± 0.6 ‰ for Clostridium pasteurianum DSMZ 525. Our study represents first time the potential of Dehalococcoides to dechaloginate HCH isomers and confirms the application of carbon stable isotope fractionation as tool to monitor anaerobic HCH transformation in the environment.

Zhichao Xu
Peking Union Medical College, China
Title: HerbBOL: Herbal Barcode of Life
Biography:
Zhichao Xu received his Master’s degree in Fermentation engineering from Jilin Agricultural University in 2012. Since 2013, he is studying for doctor’s degree in pharmacognosy from Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College.

Abstract:
Numerous adverse reactions, such as aristolochic acid nephropathy and herb-induced poisoning, have prompted increased global concern over the safety of herbal medicines. DNA barcoding provides a powerful new tool for addressing this problem. A preliminary system for DNA barcoding herbal materials has been established based on a two locus combination of ITS2 + psbA–trnH barcodes. There are 78,847 sequences belonging to 23,262 species in the system, which include more than 95% of crude herbal drugs in pharmacopeia, such as those of China, Japan, Korea, India, USA, and Europe. The system has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine enterprises. For example, a detection of 100 Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma decoction piece samples purchased from drug stores and hospitals showed that that only 40% of the samples were authentic R. crenulata, which is recorded in Chinese Pharmacopeia, whereas the other samples were all adulterants and may indicate a potential safety issue. A circular consensus sequencing (CCS) strategy involving single molecule, real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing technology was applied to de novo assembly and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection of chloroplast genomes. Comparisons of the three assembled Fritillaria genomes to 34.1 kb of validation Sanger sequences revealed 100% concordance, and the detected intraspecies SNPs at a minimum variant frequency of 15% were all confirmed. We recommend this approach for its powerful applicability for evolutionary genetics and genomics studies in plants based on the sequences of chloroplast genomes.

Samina Ambreen
Fatima Jinnah Women University, Pakistan
Title: Characterization of two unique organophosphate pesticide degrading bacterial strains from mianwali distict, Punjab, Pakistan
Biography:
Samina Ambreen is assist.professor in Botany at Govt. College for Women, Civil Lines, Rawalpindi.She is doing Ph.D in Environmental Sciences at Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi.

Abstract:
Abstract -Present study deals with the isolation, characterization and identification of indigenous organophosphate degrading soil bacteria from various agricultural soils of district Mianwali, Pakistan. Two isolates MB497 and MB504 were screened for their tolerance against three different OP pesticides (Chlorpyrifos, Triazophos, Dimethoate). The isolate MB497 showed tolerance up to 80g/l for CPF (Chlorpyrifos) which is the much higher concentrations of CPF reported so far. It could also tolerate Triazophos and Dimethoate up to 40g/l and 4g/l respectively. MB504 was able to grow in the presence of 8g/l CPF, 20g/l Triazophos and 1.2g/l Dimethoate. Both strains showed 41.56% and 63.56% degradation of CPF after 3 days of incubation, respectively. Both the strains were facultative anaerobes and mesophilic in nature. MB497 was alkaliphile (growing best at pH 9) and MB504 showed best growth at pH 6 (acidophilic). The bacterial isolates MB497 and MB504 were identified as Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. respectively using 16S rRNA sequencing. These isolated bacterial strains showed wide diversity in their morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics and tolerance for heavy metals. Both strains also exhibited extraordinary high resistance to CPF, and other OP pesticides with considerable biodegradation. Therefore, these bacterial strains have great capacity for degrading OP pesticides and can be used for bioremediation of OP pesticide contaminated soils under local conditions

Simon Shibru Cheche
University of Antwerpen, Belgium
Title: Human pressure threaten Swayne’s Hartebeest to point of local extinction from the Savannah Plains of Nech Sar National Park, South Rift Valley, Ethiopia
Biography:


Abstract:
We investigated the population size of the endemic and endangered Swayne’s Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) in Nech Sar National Park from 2012 to 2014 and document the major threats why the species is on the verge of local extinction. The park was once known for its abundant density of Swayne’s Hartebeest. We used direct total count methods for census. We administered semi structured interviews and open ended questionnaires with senior scouts who are member of the local communities. Historical records were obtained to evaluate the population trends of the animals since 1974. The density of the animal decreased from 65 in 1974 to 1 individual per 100 km2 in 2014 with a decline of 98.5% in the past 40 years. The respondents agreed that the conservation status of the park was in its worst condition ever now with only 2 Swayne’s Hartebeest left, with a rapid decline from 4 individuals in 2012 and 12 individuals in 2009. Mainly hunting and habitat loss, but also unsuitable season of reproduction and shortage of forage as minor factors were identified as threats for local extinction of the Swayne’s Hartebeests. On the other hand, predation, fire, disease and ticks were not considered a cause for the declining trend. Hunting happens mostly out of some kind of revenge since the local community thought that they were pushed out from the land because of the presence of Swayne's Hartebeest in the area. Respondents agreed that the revenge action of the local communities was in response to their unwillingness to be displaced from the park in 1982/3. This conflict situation is resulting from the exclusionary wildlife management policy of the country. We conclude that the human interventions in general and illegal hunting in particular pushed the Swayne’s Hartebeest to a point of local extinction. Therefore, we recommend inclusive wildlife management approach for continuing existence of the park together with its natural resources so that sustainable use of the resources is in place.

Ayodeji Olushola
McPherson University, Nigeria
Title: Broad spectrum physico-chemical characterization of textile wastewaters and biodegradation using Providentia retgerri ODO and Bacillus thuringiensis RUN 1
Biography:
AWOTULA, Ayodeji Olushola is a budding scientist who is currently pursuing his PhD at the University of Lagos. He won the Federal Government (of Nigeria) Scholarship Awards (Undergraduate) for his undergraduate studies in Biochemistry as well as a Teaching Assistantship Award (of the University of Lagos) for his postgraduate studies (MSc Biochemistry). He has published six (6) peer reviewed papers in reputable academic journals and is presently a Lecturer II at McPherson University Seriki-Sotayo, Ogun state, Nigeria. His core area of research is environmental biocatalysis and toxicology.

Abstract:
Goal 7 of the Millenium Development Goal is to ensure environmental sustainability; the search for wastewater remediation techniques that are eco-friendly, cost effective and sustainable continues. Textile wastewater samples were obtained from a local textile dyeing house in Abeokuta, and were subjected to physicochemical analyses including heavy metals assessment using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS); temperature, pH, conductivity, using the appropriate meter instruments; biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and other determinations by standard methods; anions and cations estimation by titrimetric methods. Among the bacterial isolates screened for textile wastewater remediation potentials were Providentia retgerri ODO and Bacillus thuringiensis RUN 1 identified by 16S rRNA phylogenetic analyses. Heavy metals concentration ranges were (Cd:not detected (ND) , Cr:8.7-11, Fe:4.9-5.8, Mn:0.2-4.3, Ni:0.2-0.3, Pb:18.1-21.5, and Zn:ND) ppm. Other parameters were (BOD:124.9-126.9, COD:109.1-121.1, DO:2.5-2.7) mg/l; temperature:37-39, pH:7-8, conductivity:10-920 µ/cm2; (alkalinity:374-1360, salinity:1.5-3.0, total dissolved solid:16.9-41.3, total suspended solid:0.02-13.5, total hardness:350-375) mg/l; while anions and cations were: (Br-:3.8-5.7, Cl-:532-745, NO3-:24.6-26.8, NO-:0.7-0.8, PO43-:1691.4-3281.7, SO42-:108.2-114.7) mg/l and (Ca2+:11.8-30.2, K+:0.5-8.8, Na+:68.5-114.6) ppm respectively. The isolates degraded individual dye systems, simulated dyed wastewater and textile wastewaster. Providentia retgerri ODO demonstrated 94% and 77% decolorization of textile wastewater and malachite green respectively; while Bacillus thuringiensis RUN 1 decolorized textile wastewater (85%), malachite green (85%) and methyl red (91%) respectively. UV-Vis and FTIR spectra analyses showed decolorization was achieved via biodegradation of dye stuffs. The work reveals that effluents being discharged from the textile dyeing house were highly polluted, while the isolated bacterial strains could be deployed for textile wastewater bioremediation.

Posters

Session Introduction

Natalya Romadanova
National Center of Biotechnology, Kazakhstan
Title: Creating a cryogenic bank of malus in Kazakhstan
Biography:


Abstract:
Developing aMalus cryobank in liquid nitrogen would provide long-term storage for important apple genetic resources that cannot be stored as seed. The Kazakhstan in vitroapple shoot collection consists of 38 accessions including 14 cultivars, 9 clonal rootstocks and 13 wild forms.Ninecultivars,AportAleksandr, AportAleksandrform 5, Aport Krovavo-krasnii, Voskhod, GoldenDelicious, GoldRush, GrushovkaVernenskaya, Maksat, RenetLandsbergskyi, RoyalRedDelicious, SinapAlmatinskyi, Suislepper, oneclonal rootstock – 62-396,and 2wild forms – KG, ТМ6 were tested to determine a suitable protocol.Cryopreservation by PVS2 vitrification, encapsulation-dehydration, and programmable slow freezing were tested.Experimentsstudied the duration of the cold hardening of shoots and apical meristems and comparedhardening at a constant +4°C in the darkoralternating temperatures, 8 h at 22°C with low light and 16 h at -1°C in the dark.The effects of nutrient medium composition, duration and temperature conditions of cultivation were also studied. The best results were obtained using the PVS2vitrification method with preliminary hardening of in vitro shoots at alternating temperatures for 3 weeks. The procedure also requiredpreculture ofshoot tips on MS medium containing 0.3 M sucrose grown withalternating temperatures for 2 days.Regrowth percentage using this cryopreservation protocol averaged 71.8% and the range was from 50-84% for the 15 apple accessions. Apple accessions Aport Aleksandr, Aport Aleksandr form 5, Maksat and MM 106were putinto the liquid nitrogen cryobank for long-term storage and storage of the other accessions is underway.

Marina Ross
Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK
Title: Anti-angiogenic potential of bovine colostrum
Biography:
Marina Ross currently on her last year of PhD in transparent study specializing in Food Science, Cell Biology and Immunology at School of Health Sciences, Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK.She received her first degree at the Cooperative University,Russia and her MSc degree in Food Science at University of Wales Institute Cardiff, UK.

Abstract:
Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature. The vascular network delivers oxygen (O₂) and nutrients to all cells within the body, and the constant supply of oxygen is crucial for development, homeostasis and functions of all tissues. Tissue oxygenation is controlled by a balance between O₂ supply, delivery and demand generated by metabolic outputs of tissues. Under normal physiological conditions, cells in the adult human body provided with adequate supply of O₂ to meet its metabolic demand to nourish, support growth and repair of all tissues.Under uncontrolled conditions, angiogenesis promotes tumour, retinopathies and inflammatory disorders, while inadequate angiogenesis can lead to coronary artery disease. Hypoxia occurs when changes in supply and demand become imbalanced.Cellular transcriptional responses to low oxygen, or hypoxia are mediated by Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIF) that controls the expression of numerous antigenic, metabolic and cell cycle genes.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) plays a central role in angiogenesis and neovascularisation by increasing the delivery of oxygen and energy substances to cells and is regulated by HIF. Individual compounds found in colostrum are shown to inhibit angiogenesis. The synergistic effect of bovine colostrum on HECV human endothelial cell line under hypoxic conditions was tested.In-Vitroangiogenic assays show inhibiting effects of colostrum on tube formation and invasion. The result shows that colostrum has potential as anti angiogenic and possibly anticancer agent. TheqPCRresults suggest that the action is mediated through the knockout of HIF-1a and inhibition of VEGF genes.

Anna Pick Kiong LING
International Medical University, Malaysia
Title: Investigating prostaglandin E2 and intracellular oxidative stress levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages upon Treatment with Parkiaspeciosa
Biography:
Dr. Anna Ling Pick Kiong is a senior lecturer of Medical Biotechnology, the School of Health Science, IMU since 2010. Dr. Ling has 11 years of teaching experience in various medical biotechnology modules. Besides teaching, she is also actively involved in research and has successfully supervised many undergraduate and postgraduatestudents.Her major fields of research include plant biochemistry, plant biotechnology and bioreactor feasibility studies,particularly concerning the production of pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites from medicinal plants. As the consequence of her work in plant biotechnology since 1996, she has also expanded her research inmutation breeding as well asstudy on natural products as a potential source of anti-dengue, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases therapeutic agent. Recently, she is also involves in the development and production of edible plant vaccines.

Abstract:
Inflammation is a protective immune response of body to any injurious agents such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS). However, chronic inflammation which characterised as uncontrolled and prolonged inflammation is believed to associate with various idiopathic human diseases. Inflammatory process up-regulates a series of pro-inflammatory mediators such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) which contribute to pain, redness, swelling, heat and loss of function. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are usually administered to reduce the symptoms of inflammation. Nevertheless, the use of NSAIDs is associated with several serious gastrointestinal and renal dysfunctions. This has raised the attention of scientists to discover alternative treatments with safer compounds. Parkiaspeciosa or commonly known as stink bean, has been used to treat inflammation in folk medicine. However, scientific data on its effectiveness as anti-inflammatory agent has yet to be documented. In this study, the anti-inflammatory properties of methanol extracts of P. speciosa were determined by measuring the intracellular oxidative stress and PGE2 levels on LPS-stimulated murine macrophages RAW 264.7 cells. Studies were initiated by determining the optimal concentration of LPS in stimulating a significant increase in ROS measured using 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) method. After that, the cells were subjected to cytotoxicity assay and the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of methanol extracts of both seeds and peels of P.speciosa were determined through 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Subsequently, the anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts were determined by measuring the ROS and PGE2 levels in LPS-stimulated RAW 267.4 cells by DCFH-DA and competitive enzyme immunoassay kit, respectively. Present study revealed that LPS at 1µg/mL had significantly increased the ROS level yet was not cytotoxicity towards RAW 264.7 cells. The MNTD of methanol extract of P. speciosa seed was 5µg/mL whereas the peel extract recorded a MNTD of 300µg/mL. The ROS level in LPS-stimulated cells was significantly reduced upon treatment with MNTD and ½ MNTD of seed extract. Nevertheless, both seed and peel extracts regardless of the concentrations tested were unable to show a significant reduction in PGE2 production. Seeds of P. speciosa may possess anti-inflammatory properties on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells particularly by reducing the ROS level whereas peels of P. speciosa did not show any potential anti-inflammatory properties in this experiment model.

Andreas Christe
University Hospital Bern “Inselspital“, Switzerland
Title: Classification of interstitial lung disease patterns based on local DCT features of HRCT images
Biography:


Abstract:
Purpose: The classification of HRCT image patches with interstitial lung disease (ILD) abnormalities, as a basic component towards the quantification of the various ILD patterns in the lung. Materials and methods: Based on the publicly available TALISMAN database consisting of 113 HRCT scans, a dataset with nearly 2500 ILD image patches was created with size equal to 21×21pixels. Six lung patterns were considered: normal, ground glass opacity (GGO), consolidation, reticulation, honeycombing and the combination of reticulation with GGO. Initially each patch is described by a feature vector which is then fed to a machine learning classifier. Feature extraction relies on a filter bank containing the 25 basis functions of the 5x5 Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). After convolving the image with the filter bank, the 10-quantiles are computed on the filter responses for describing the distribution of local frequencies that characterize image texture. Quantiles are points taken at regular intervals from the cumulative histogram of the image; 10-quantiles are 9 values splitting the histogram to 10 intervals. Moreover, the minimum and maximum value of every filter response is added, together with the 32 gray-level histogram values of the original image. The final feature vector with 307 values is fed to a random forest (RF) with 40 trees for the classification. Results: The proposed ILD pattern methodology achieved an overall accuracy in the order of 90% outperforming state-of-the-art methods tested in the same data, by at least 7%. The sensitivity (%)/specificity (%) were: Normal - 98.8/97.8; GGO - 81.3/98.8; consolidation - 92.7/99.5; reticulation - 85.6/95.7; honeycombing - 86/98.9; and combined reticulation/GGO - 88.2/94.8.

Oluwasayo E. Ogunjinmi
University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Title: Effects of collection time on chemical composition of leaf essential oils of Hoslundia opposita
Biography:
Oluwasayo Esther OGUNJINMI is a Lecturer since 2008 in the Department of Chemistry, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria. She holds Bachelor of Technology degree (2004) in Pure and Applied Chemistry Department, Ladoke Akintola, University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Master of Science (2010) in Chemistry, Chemistry Department, University of Ibadan. Oluwasayo also holds Master of Technology degree (2014) from Pure and Applied Chemistry Department, Ladoke Akintola, University of Technology, Ogbomoso and presently pursuing her doctorate degree in the same Department. She is a natural product Chemist and a member of CSN with many publications in renowned national and international journals.

Abstract:
An essential oil is any concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds produced by plants. It has been established that several factors affect the component of the plants such as soil texture, relative humidity and collection time; this study is aimed at investigating the effect of collection time on chemical composition of this essential oils. Pulverized leaves (500 g) of Hoslundia opposita harvested in the 7 am and 2 pm of the same day were separately hydrodistilled using Clevenger apparatus to obtain the essential oils from the leaves. The leaf oils collected in the 7 am and 2 pm harvests yielded 0.54 and 0.65 %w/w respectively. Analysis of the leaf oil obtained in the 7am, using GC and GC-MS revealed the presence of 23 compounds which made up 81.8 % of the total oil while 19 compounds (93.2 %) were identified in the 2pm leaf oil. The most abundant components of the leaf oil collected in the 7 am harvest were p-cymene (28.7 %), sabinene (7.1 %) and 1, 8-cineole (6.6 %) Meanwhile the major components of leaf oil in the 2 pm harvest were p-cymene (26.4 %), thymol (15.3 %), 1, 8-cineole (15.0 %) and - terpinene (10.4 %). The composition pattern of leaf oil obtained in the 7 am and 2 pm harvests of Hoslundia opposita revealed significant differences qualitatively and quantitatively.

Fouzia Khan
University of Karachi, Pakistan
Title: Molecular characterization and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of muti drug resistant uropathogenic E.coli
Biography:
Fouzia Khan has completed M.B.B.S., from Dow Medical College, Karachi and M.Phil from University of Karachi, Karachi. Now she is waiting for the result of her PhD. She has also worked as an Pathologist in Sindlab, Karachi. She has been awarded three travel grants from American Society of Microbiology. Three research papers and one book is on her credit. However, several research papers are on the way for publication. She has served as referee for many journals.

Abstract:
The main objective of this study was to identify antibiotic susceptibility pattern of multidrug resistant uropathogenic E.coli and also determine the molecular basis of pathogenic resistant genes. This cross sectional study was conducted in Microbiology Department, University of Karachi, from January 2014 to January 2015. Clinical specimens were collected from different hospitals of Karachi. Clinical isolates were identified by standard and specific microbiological methods. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by Kirby Bauer Disc diffusion method. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines were used to determine the results. Molecular characterization of pathogenic resistant genes was carried out by using PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Multi drug resistant E. coli was exhibiting increased trend of resistance against various especially β-lactum antibiotics. Morethan 70% of resistance was noticed against Cefurixime, Cefipime and Cotrimoxazole, whereas, morethan 50% resistance was determined against Aztreonam, Amoxicillin, Amoxil/ Clav acid and Ceftriaxone. Beta lactamases constituted an important mechanism of resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. These enzymes are known for their ability to hydrolyze β-lactum antibiotics, distinguished in variable amino acid sequence and associated with different diseases. Molecular characterization of uropathogenic E. coli exhibited high emergence of CTX M1 (57.1%) gene followed by TEM (33.3%) and SHV (9.5%). Antibiotic resistant uropathogenic E. coli are emerging as a critical human health issue. There is an urgent need to resolve the issue by taking some preventive measures. Combined efforts of health care professionals and researchers are required to educate people about the proper use of antibiotics and other infection control measures.

Kavitha Shettigar
Manipal University, India
Title: Staphylococcus aureus from polymicrobial diabetic foot ulcer infection: Antibacterial susceptibility and virulence factors
Biography:
Mrs. Kavitha S. received her Master’s degree in Microbiology & Immunology from Manipal University, Manipal, India. Since 2011, she is studying for doctor’s degree in molecular microbial profiling of diabetic foot ulcer isolates from School of Life Sciences, Manipal University.

Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus involves defects in the bodily response to insulin increasing high glucose levels in blood. Hyperglycemia with underlying risk factors of neuropathy predispose diabetic patients to an increased risk of infection, specially, lower extremities. These infections may culminate into chronic ulcerating polymicrobial biofilm-mediated wounds that do not resolve with standard antimicrobial therapies and eventually result in limb amputation. Diabetic foot wound infections also contribute to significant yearly costs of medical care. Diabetic foot wounds are often mediated by polymicrobial coexisting communities with complex biofilm forming capabilities (Murali et al., 2014). It is unclear whether diabetic foot wounds arise from specific combination of microbial species or due to increase in the microbial loads of opportunistic microbes (Gardner & Frantz, 2008). However, clearly polymicrobial infections significantly alter treatment therapies and patient outcomes. Staphylococcus aureus is commonly isolated from diabetic foot wound infections and are able to modulate wound healing and avert localized immunity enabling further colonization by other microbes and thereby exacerbate wound healing dynamics (Bowling et al., 2009). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is significantly associated with hospital and community-acquired infections worldwide (Klevens et al., 2007) possessing various virulence factors including adhesins, immunoavoidance factors, toxins, coagulase and a variety of antimicrobial resistance genes (Gordon & Lowy, 2008). The multiple virulence factors and inherent antibacterial resistance of MRSA have made this pathogen a significant burden on the medical community (Goetghebeur et al., 2007). Various studies have been conducted on biofilm production of S. aureus in association with C. albicans but little is known about antibacterial resistance and virulence behaviour of S. aureus in monomicrobial and polymicrobial settings. We have characterized 116 strains of S. aureus isolated from diabetic foot ulcer covering monomicrobial and polymicrobial infections. Antibacterial susceptibility was determined and characterization of pathogenicity markers and species identification was performed using multiplex-PCR amplification that included primers for tuf elongation factor, segments coding for PVL toxin components S and F, Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin -1, Leukotoxins (LUK-DE and LUK-M) and icaADB operon for the isolates. Resistance to a few antibacterial agents and presence of specific virulence markers are found to be associated with particular wound type and these results will aid in antibacterial therapy for diabetic foot ulcer infection. Results will be discussed in detail.

Mustafa Mumtaz
National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan
Title: Discrete cosine transform based personal identification using iris images
Biography:
Engineer Mustafa Mumtaz was born in Rawalpindi, Pakistan on 18 December, 1984. He is a graduate of National University of Sciences and Technology, Sector H-12, Islamabad, Pakistan. He has vast experience in 2D Signal Processing, Computer Vision, Pattern Recognition and Classification, Image Processing, Biometrics and Artificial Intelligence. He has more than 17 publications in renowned International Journals and Conferences. He has won travel grants from IEEE Signal Processing Society for attending IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP-2009) in Egypt and from International Biometric Society for attending International Conference on Biometrics (ICB-2014) in Italy. He has remained the reviewer of World Multi Conference on Systemic, Cybernetics and Informatics (WMSCI) in 2010 and currently the reviewer of Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics. He remained the member of IEEE (2009-2013), IEEE Signal Processing Society (2009-2010) and IEEE Communication Society (2010). Presently he is the member of Optical Society of America (OSA) and Pakistan Engineering Council.

Abstract:
Iris based personal verification is considered to be the most accurate and precise in comparison to all other modalities in biometric domain. It has a high user satisfactoriness and reliability. This makes the iris modality to be very useful in the application of information security, ATMs, and physical access etc. The iris recognition technology is easy to use and hard to counterfeit because the attributes are not something that can be misplaced or lost, easy or conveyed from one person to another. With iris recognition technology becoming more commonplace, naturally there is much discussion as to the effectiveness and accuracy behind it. Dr. John contributions in the area of iris recognition are worth mentioning and his developed algorithms are used by several commercially available iris recognition systems as shown by Daugman (2007) and P. Verma et al. (2012). However, published results so far have been produced using wavelets technology and no attempts hitherto have been made beyond this technology for iris registration. Wavelets suffer from the directionality constraints and are not considered very effective in recognition results. On the other hand, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) have been extensively utilized as it does not have constrains of directionality and multi resolution decomposition. DCT packs image into low frequency components Rao K R (1990). DCT attempts to de-correlate the image data. After de-correlation each transform coefficient can be encoded independently without losing compression efficiency. DCT has been used for extracting the normalized energies of iris texture. This paper presents a neoteric approach for iris based personal identification which exploits the textural pattern of iris using the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). Iris is extracted using Daugmans Integro-differential operator as shown by Daugman (2014) and Libor Masek algorithm. Different methodology and techniques are utilized for eyelashes and eyelid masking for extracting the iris details. ROI was decomposed into 100 segments each of size 25x25 pixels. The DCT of individual segments were calculated. Except 12.5% of the DCT coefficients, rest of them has values near to zero which were discarded. The algorithm has been tested on CASIA V1 iris database acquired from Center for Biometrics and Security Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences which is available at website. Normalized Euclidean distance is employed as an evaluation function for classification of iris images. DCT based approach established the decidability index of 3.85, equal error rate (EER) of 0.15% and Genuine Identification Rate of 98.1%. The quantitative measures confirm iris recognition to be reliable and accurate with DCT based approach as compared to one reported in literature.

Vaishnavi Unde
BITS- Pilani, India
Title: Comparative study of production of Bio- Indigo by Pandoraea sp. in a two phase -Fed batch and continuous bioreactor
Biography:
Mrs.Vaishnavi Unde joined BITS - Pilani (Birla Institute of Technology and Science, K K Birla Goa campus), India in 2006. She is presently working as Lecturer in Chemical Engineering Department. She has obtained her Master’s Degree (Chemical Engineering) from the Bharti Vidyapeth, Pune, India in 2006. Presently she is pursuing her PhD in Biochemical Engineering. Her topic of research is – Biocatalytic production of commercial textile dye- Indigo, under the guidance of Dr. Srikanth Mutnuri, Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, BITS-Pilani, Goa campus, India.

Abstract:
Indigo, is blue of blue jeans, a synthetic dye used on large scale all over the world. Chemical production of the dye is taking a new route towards bacterial production to overcome the environmental effects that are posed by the synthetic blue powder (Indigo). In the present work a strain Pandoraea sp. isolated from the oil contaminated soil is found to produce blue pigment which is analyzed qualitatively as indigo using Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR). The strain is used for indigo production at lab scale in two different bioreactor configurations first the fed batch mode and second continuous mode using two phase. The two phases consisting of medium carrying biomass and the second phase of silicone oil carrying substrate indole. The use of second phase allows higher concentration of substrate injection reducing the inhibition effects of the substrate as well as act as a partitioning agent for removal of the product. In two phase study, the maximum indigo produced was seen to be 0.068 g/L after 22 hours of substrate injection into the Fermentor in a fed batch mode. The maximum yield obtained in this configuration was 19%. For commercial production of bio-indigo a continuous operation is required, which was studied in a bioreactor with 1.5 liter capacity under the optimized conditions. The maximum indigo produced was found to be 0.052 g/L after about 72 hours of operation. The results showed decrease in the production of indigo in continuous mode as compared to fed batch operation, which may be due to the insufficient time available for the bacteria to bio-transform indole into indigo.