International Conference on
Latest Trends in Biotechnology and Biodiversity
August 24-26, 2015, Dubai, UAE

Scientific Programme(Day 1 : Aug-24-2015)

Keynote Forum

Zachary Senwo
Alabama A&M University, USA
keynote: Soil Biological and Biochemical Response to Mercury Exposure
Biography:
Dr. Zachary Senwo is Professor and Director of Biological & Environmental Sciences Research programs in the Department of Biological & Environmental Sciences at Alabama A&M University. He received his B.S., from the University of Georgia, M.S., from Alabama A&M University, and Ph.D., from Iowa State University. He is a graduate of the Sparkman Center for Global Health program, University of Alabama, Birmingham and has published over 150 research articles and book chapters impacting research programs globally. He has held various administrative positions at his University and successfully launched scientific partnerships with institutions in Brazil, Costa Rica, China, and Honduras.

Abstract:
Mercury (Hg) although a priority pollutant, persistence in the environment and highly toxic to organisms and humans, has no biological function. We investigated Hg speciation in four soil types spiked with Hg (300 mg kg-1 soil) and its effects on soil microbial respiration and soil enzymes (amidohydrolases and phosphatase). Mercury speciation was investigated under acidic and alkaline conditions while soil microbial respiration and enzymes activities were determined under laboratory settings. Speciation results revealed that the water soluble form was the least, with <1% of the total Hg irrespective of pH condition, while the residual fraction was the most abundant (>80%) in Canisteo, Houston, and Ketona soils under acidic conditions and <35% in Decatur soil. Under alkaline conditions, the residual fraction was ≤70% in Canisteo, Houston, and ketona and ≤29% in Decatur soil. The exchangeable fraction was the second most abundant fraction in the soils used ranging from 3.7 – 50.0% under acid conditions and 16.9 – 52.1% under alkaline conditions indicating that Hg desorption was found to be more favorable under alkaline than acidic conditions. Soil respiration was suppressed by Hg especially at the 100 mg kg-1 concentration level. There was varied responses in amidohydrolases and phosphatase in the presence of Hg. Amidohydrolases were more sensitive to Hg (18 – 90%) than phosphatase (0 – 35%) in all soils. This study demonstrated that the forms in which Hg exist in soils may determine its bioavailability and toxicity. Also microbial respiration and enzyme reactivities are potential bioindicators of heavy metal contaminations of the environment.

Keynote Forum

Harvinder Chawla
G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, India
keynote: IPR protection in agriculture and biotechnology
Biography:
Prof H.S. Chawla has completed his Ph.D at the age of 23 years from Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana. He availed DAAD Fellowship at Institut fur Resistenzgenetik, Gruenbach, Germany and DBT Overseas Associateship at Agriculture Canada, Ottawa. He has 35 years of teaching and research experience in plant biotechnology and IPR areas, published over 100 research publications, books on Plant Biotechnology and IPRs, supervised 16 Ph.D. Presently, he is serving as Head, Genetics & Plant Breeding and CEO, Intellectual Property Management Centre. He served as the Chair in the Asia IPR Conferences in Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangla Desh. He facilitated filing of 35 Patents, Designs, Copyrights and registration of plant varieties.

Abstract:
Various international treaties and agreements viz. WTO-TRIPS, CBD, ITPGRFA (Seed Treaty) have been addressing to the issue of plant genetic resources, access and benefit sharing and protection of plant varieties. TRIPs is one of the agreements influencing access to genetic resources and its monopolization. UPOV is one of the most accepted sui-generis system for the protection of new varieties of plants and recognition of plant breeders rights. ITPGRFA provides an international recognition of farmers’ rights. In response to TRIPs agreement provisions, India enacted or amended different laws for protection of genetic resources and biotechnological inventions. India enacted Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001 to protect plant varieties that are new and also traditional farmers’ varieties, which the farmers are conserving and maintaining over the years. Indian PPV&FR Act is unique in the sense that it provides so many rights to farmers which are not even available with UPOV and ITPGRFA. Recent innovations in plant tissue culture, biotechnology, omics and bioinformatics make it necessary to understand the IPR laws. Biotechnology involves application of technology on biological organisms viz. microorganisms, plants and animals and biological material of DNA and RNA but patenting laws of different countries were solely based on non-biological objects and inventions and which are continuously amended. Patenting and protection of microorganisms, plants and animals, cloning, regeneration protocols, promoter, vector sequences and genetic transformation methods, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), molecular markers and scientific disciplines of omics and bioinformatics have been discussed in the context of TRIPs regulations, EPO directive, USPTO and Indian Patent Office guidelines.

Keynote Forum

Fábio de Oliveira
Federal University of Uberlândia, Brazil
keynote: Purification and characterization of BmooAi: a new toxin from Bothrops moojeni snake venom that inhibits platelet aggregation
Biography:
Fábio de Oliveira has completed his Ph.D in 2001 from National University of Brasilia. He was director of Innovation and Transfer of Technology of the Federal University of Uberlândia. Currently is Professor of the Postgraduate Programs in Genetics and Biochemistry and in Cellular and Structural Biology of the Federal University of Uberlândia. Associate Researcher of the National Institute of Science and Technology in Nano-BioPharma and supervisor of postdoctoral, doctoral, masters and undergraduate research students. Has experience in the area of Biochemistry/Biophysics and Biotechnology with emphasis in Isolation and characterization of pharmacologically active principles present in venoms of Brazilian snakes.

Abstract:
In this work, I describe the purification/characterization of BmooAi, a new toxin from Bothrops moojeni that inhibits platelet aggregation. The purification of BmooAi was carried out through three chromatographic steps (ion-exchange on a DEAE-Sephacel column, molecular exclusion on a Sephadex G-75 column and reverse-phase HPLC chromatography on a C2/C18 column). BmooAi was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and shown to be a single-chain protein of 15,000 Da. BmooAI was analysed by MALDI-TOF Spectrometry and revealed two major components with molecular masses 7824.4 and 7409.2 as well as a trace of protein with a molecular mass of 15,237.4 Da. Sequencing of BmooAi by Edman degradation showed two amino acid sequences: IRDFDPLTNAPENTA and ETEEGAEEGTQ, which revealed no homology to any known toxin from snake venom. BmooAi showed a rather specific inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by collagen, adenosine diphosphate or epinephrine in human platelet-rich plasma in a dose-dependent manner; whereas it had little or no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin. The effect on platelet aggregation induced by BmooAi remained active even when heated to 100°C. BmooAi could be of medical interest as a new tool for the development of novel therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders.

Keynote Forum

Benoit Schoefs
University of Le Mans, France
keynote: Microalga Milking: a Review and New Approaches
Biography:
Benoît Schoefs graduated from the U Liège (ULg). He became Professor in Plant Physiology at the U Dijon. Recently, he joined the U Le Mans (France). He has published more than 66 papers in international journals and edited books, monographies and special issues. He is a member of the editorial board of International Journal of Plant Biology, Communicative and Integrative Biology and Acta Botanica Gallica. He won the Prize ‘D. Clos’ from the Toulouse Academy of Sciences and the annual scientific competition of the Belgian Academy of Sciences. His research is focused on the responses of photosynthetic organisms, including algae, to stresses. He heads the research team MicroMar.

Abstract:
The rise of human populations, potential climatic changes, and the growth of cities contribute to the depletion of natural resources and increasing their cost. To overcome difficulties in supplying populations and reducing the resource cost, a search for alternative energy, pharmaceutical and nanotechnology sources has started. Among them, microalgae are very promising because they use carbon dioxide to produce biomass and/or valuable compounds. Once produced, the biomass is harvested and processed through a dedicated downstream programme. Drying, grinding and extraction steps are the most common steps of such programmes and are destructive to the microalgal biomass that then needs to be renewed. In addition, extraction and purification steps generate organic wastes. Altogether, it is urgent to develop alternatives, more environmental friendly downstream processes to process algal biomass. Among the possibilities, the concept of milking is especially interesting because it specifies that the extraction should not kill the cells. Therefore, it does not require the need of culturing and regrowing the algae. In this contribution, the development of milking of microalgae is discussed. The main grounds for thought identified are (a) development of alternative methods to extract and harvest high added value compounds, (b) design of photobioreactors, (c) biodiversity and (d) stress physiology. They are discussed separately and illustrated with original results.