2nd Global conference on

Vaccines

November 14-16, 2016, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Scientific Programme(Day 1 : Nov-14-2016)

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REVERSE VACCINOLOGY: Developing Vaccines Against MDR Pathogens in the Post-Antibiotic Era

Session Introduction

Prince Sharma
Panjab University, Chandigarh, INDIA.
Title: REVERSE VACCINOLOGY: Developing Vaccines Against MDR Pathogens in the Post-Antibiotic Era

Biography: Will be update soon

Abstract: Background: Acinetobacter baumannii, a Gram negative, multi drug resistant, opportunistic human pathogen, causes serious nosocomial infections especially in immunocompromised patients. Its resistance to the available drugs and isolation of resistant strains in India bearing blaNDM-1 gene have made it ‘difficult to treat’ pathogen and calls for alternative therapies like developing an effective vaccine. Reverse vaccinology, unlike the conventional one, is time effective in screening potential vaccine candidates using a combination of bioinformatics tools. Material/methods: The proteome of A. baumannii was analyzed in silico using VAXIGN tools to predict potential vaccine candidate proteins on the bases of sub-cellular localization, number of transmembrane helices, adhesion probability, ability to bind MHCs and dissimilarity with human and mouse proteome. FilF, an outer membrane putative pilus assembly protein, and NucAb, an outer membrane nuclease, were cloned in pET 28-a vector, expressed in E.coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by Ni-NTA chromatography. Their immunoprotective efficacies were monitored in an A. baumannii associated intratracheal murine pneumonia model developed in our lab. Results: Out of the total 4589 proteins, 57 including pilus assembly proteins, competence proteins, siderophore receptor proteins, FilF, nuclease, peptidase, efflux proteins and autotransporter proteins fulfilled the criteria of good vaccine candidates. Immunization with purified FilF reduced the bacterial load in lungs by 2 log cycles 12 h post infection and immunization with NucAb reduced it by 5 log cycles 24 h post infection. Levels of pro-inflammatory TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β and IL-6 cytokines were reduced and that of anti-inflammatory IL10 increased significantly. Significantly decreased neutrophil infiltration was observed in the lungs of immunized mice. Active immunization with NucAb and FilF resulted in 20% and 50% survival of A. baumannii (108 cfu) challenged mice, respectively. However, survival rate of mice increased to 40% after passive immunization with purified NucAb. Conclusions: FilF and NucAb, predicted as vaccine candidates by in silico analysis, showed immunoprotective potential and can contribute in vaccine development against A. baumannii individually or in combination


Clinical studies and field trials Address : Navrongo Health

Session Introduction

Samuel Tamti Chatio
Navrongo Health Research Centre Navrongo Ghana
Title: Clinical studies and field trials

Biography: Samuel Tamti Chatio is currently a Senior Research Officer at the Navrongo Health Research Centre. He had his Bachelor of Arts Degree, Social Science (Economics and Sociology) at the University of Cape Coast, Ghana in 2002 and later obtained his Master of Science Degree in Applied Health Social Science at the School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon in 2012. He joined Navrongo Health Research Centre (NHRC) in 2002 as an Assistant Research Officer. He won the overall best worker award senior category in 2009. He worked in the following projects: Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Study; Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy (IPTp); Home Management of malaria in Urban Bolgatanga; Community Acceptability of Artesunate-Amodiaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria; Technical and Allocative Efficiencies of Public Health Centres in Ghana; INDEPT Phase IV Effectiveness and Safety Studies (INESS); Impact of clinical trials on health behaviors of communities and quality of health services in Western and Southern Africa among others. He is currently working on system effectiveness study of Dihydroartemisinin Piperaquine (DHP) for treating uncomplicated malaria and Health Inequalities, work and access to social security of informal workers in Ghana. He has attended several workshops including training on the use of Nvivo and Atlas Ti Softwares to code and analyze qualitative data. His research interest areas include Socio-cultural determinants of health and Impact of social health interventions. His area is on qualitative studies and he has a very good knowledge in the use of Nvivo Sotfware to code and analyze qualitative data.

Abstract: Introduction: Clinical trials conducted in sub-Saharan Africa have helped to address prevalent health challenges. The knowledge about how communities perceive clinical trials is however now evolving. This study was conducted among parents whose children participated in past clinical trials in northern Ghana to assess their knowledge and perceptions of clinical trials and the use of biomedical samples. Method:This was a qualitative study based on eighty in-depth interviews. Participants were randomly selected from among parents whose children participated in past clinical trials. Nvivo 9 software was used to code the data before analysis. Results:Respondents reported that clinical trials were carried out to determinethe efficacy of drugs and to make sure that these drugs were suitable for human beings to use.Theysaid that the conduct of clinical trials had helped to reduce the occurrence of diseases such as malaria, cerebrospinal meningitis and diarrhea. Quality of care was reported to be better within clinical trials than in the routine care. Parents reportedthat participation in clinical trials positively influenced their health-seeking behavior. Apprehensions were however expressed about the drawing and use of blood samples.Some parents expressed the suspicion that the blood was sold by researchers. The issue of blood draw emerged as most contentious. Conclusion:Parents perception about the conduct of clinical trials in the study districts is generally positive. However, misconceptions made about the use of blood samples in this study must be taken seriously and strategies found to improve transparency and greater community acceptability.


Dr. Kathleen Hefferon
Cornell University Ithaca NY
Title: Plant Expression Platforms for Vaccine Production

Biography: Kathleen Hefferon received her PhD from the Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto and continued her post-doctoral studies at Cornell University. Dr. Hefferon has worked on faculty at the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Cornell and has written two books on biopharmaceuticals in plants. She teaches and conducts research at both the University of Toronto and Cornell University. Kathleen has 4 patents, has edited 6 books, and has multiple research publications. Kathleen currently lives with her family near Ithaca NY.

Abstract: Plant made biologics have elicited much attention over recent years for their potential in assisting those in developing countries who have poor access to modern medicine. Additional applications such as the stockpiling of vaccines against pandemic infectious diseases or potential biological warfare agents are also under investigation. Plant virus expression vectors represent a technology that enables high levels of pharmaceutical proteins to be produced in a very short period of time. Recent advances in research and development have brought about the generation of superior virus expression systems which can be readily delivered to the host plant in a manner that is both efficient and cost effective. The following presentation describes recent innovations in plant virus expression systems and their uses for producing biologics from plants.


Ogutu Bernhards
Kenya Medical Research Institute Kenya
Title: Vaccines Clinical Trials in sub-Saharan Africa

Biography: Dr. Bernhards R. Ogutu is a Kenyan paediatrician/Clinical pharmarcologist. He is a Chief Research Officer with the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI). Dr. Ogutu founded the Malaria Diagnostic Centre in response to problems in malaria diagnosis as an endpoint determinant in clinical trials for malaria product development. He has seen the expansion of MDC activities to support research institutions across Africa and beyond and lately National Malaria Control Programs in several Africa countries. Dr Ogutu led the MDC team that participated in WHO malaria diagnosis guidelines and bench aids. Since 2006 Dr. Ogutu has been the Senior Clinical Trialist with the INDEPTH-Network coordinating the clinical trials capacity building across 10 African countries through the INDEPTH program Malaria Clinical Trials Alliance. This created the platform that is conducting the largest phase III RTS,S malaria vaccine clinical trial. The capacity building was in partnership with MMV, MVI and several Northern institutions with funding from the Gates Foundation. Dr. Ogutu co-founded Centre for Research in Therapeutic Sciences (CREATES) which he is the scientific team leader, a consortium involving 4 institutions (KEMRI, Strathmore University, African Centre for Clinical Trials and CSIR of South Africa) to champion product development in Africa with malaria as the flagship program. Dr. Ogutu is the founding He received his MBChB, MMed and PhD from the University of Nairobi

Abstract: Vaccines remain one of the most effective tools in infectious pathogen elimination. Therefore, there is need to evaluate vaccine candidates in the target populations where the disease is endemic. However, previously vaccines have been evaluated in the west and then deployed in Africa. This led to a lag phase in the adoption of these vaccines in regions with the highest disease burden due to lack information to guide adoption of the vaccines,lack of resources and logistical framework support deployment. The above challenges coupled with the inherent pathogen heterogeneity made some vaccines developed not being optimal for certain areas due to strain variations. The evaluation of vaccines in areas with high disease burden and ultimate target population allows for full proof determination of the cost effectiveness of the vaccine candidate. This also helps in identifying the requirements for the ultimate deployment of the vaccine if it is successful. This allows the development of capacity within the scientific and regulatory spheres that ensures a better monitoring of the vaccines when deployed. The developed capacity is an investment that ensures a ready platform for evaluation future vaccine candidates with minimal delays due field site preparation. The last decade has seen an immense increase in capacity for vaccine field evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa from phase I-IV. This has allowed development a scientific capacity which is well networked within the region facilitating optimal execution of clinical trials in a timely manner. The increased vaccine clinical trials conducted in the region have enabled a number of regulatory authorities to come together for joint reviews hence cross fertilizing their capacities. The region has also developed a formidable malaria challenge study platform for malaria vaccine candidate screening. The framework created by the network of research field centres linked to research and academic institutions with capacity in vaccine clinical trials exemplifies the region’s potential as the frontier for vaccine development in infectious diseases.The new development in the region presents opportunities and challenges for a promising vaccine development platform in Africa.


Regulatory/societal/economic/programmatic/legisl

Session Introduction

Pierre Armand MORGON
AJ Biologics – Switzerland
Title: Successful activation of the behavioral drivers of the stakeholders involved in vaccine purchasing and usage

Biography: Pierre A. MORGON is Chief Executive Officer of AJ Biologics and Regional Partner for Switzerland at Mérieux Développement. He is also Non-Executive Director to the Board of Theradiag since March 2012, a company focusing on in vitro diagnostics in auto-immunity, infectious diseases and allergy, as well as Non-Executive Director to the Board of Eurocine Vaccines since December 2013, a company dedicated to developing nasal vaccines. He is also the CEO & Founder of MRGN Advisors, a consultancy dedicated to the healthcare sector. He holds a Doctorate of Pharmacy, a Master in Business Law and a MBA. He is also an alumnus of INSEAD, IMD and MCE executive programs.

Abstract: The vaccine segment is anticipated to be one of the fastest growing one of the healthcare industry and several leading firms have stepped up vaccine investments in recent years. Unlike therapeutic agents, vaccines are administered to healthy individuals only once or very infrequently during a life time. Vaccines generate positive externalities, the ignorance of which by end-users may lead to resurgence of transmissible diseases and governmental interventions such as mandating vaccination. Bringing new vaccines to market requires carefully orchestrated programs targeting the multiple types of stakeholders along the entire value chain and addressing their respective purchasing behavior drivers. Against a backdrop of anti-vaccination buzz and vaccine fatigue, successful global launch and sustainable usage of a vaccine requires the development of a multi-pronged strategy addressing all aspects in relation to acceptability (e.g. the motivation to immunize despite the quasi-disappearance of the disease), accessibility (e.g. supply chain services), availability (e.g. mechanisms ensuring reliability of supply) and affordability (e.g. tiered pricing policy taking country differences in per capita income into account).


Vaccines against Infectious Diseases and Cancers

Session Introduction

Zelig Eshhar
The Weizmann Institute of Science Rehovot, Israel
Title: The CAR T Cell Paradigm for Cancer Treatment

Biography: Prof Eshhar has completed his Ph.D at the age of 27years from The Weizmann Institute of Science and postdoctoral studies at Harvard Medical School. He is the Chair of research in Cancer Immunology at the Sourasky Medical Center and Prof at the Faculty of Medicine in Tel Aviv University f. He has published more than 215 papers in reputed journals and has been serving on the Scientific Advisory Board of Kite Pharma.

Abstract: We have pioneered and designed the Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) , expressed it in T cells and further developed it for cancer treatment. To optimize the antitumor activity we generated CARs made of specific human cancer antigens (e.g. anti-HER2, CEA, CD34 and more) expressed them in human and murine T-cells, and studied their anti-tumor activity both in in-vitro against human cancer cell lines and xenografts we have established in immunodeficient mice. In these models we have established the optimal conditions that could be adopted for cancer patients’ treatments. Amongst the lessons learnt, is the need for lympho-depletion prior to the adoptive transfer CAR-T-cells, the advantages of using naïve, young effector memory cells, the superb anti-tumor effect of CAR T-cells made of scFv against cancer-stem cells antigens. For metastatic tumor we used systemic administration of CAR T-cells, yet cancers that are accessible to direct intra-tumoral administration (injection or endoscopy) the anti-cancer effect of the CAR T-cells has shown a significant advantage. Finally, we have developed a procedure to prepare effective and safe procedure to use allogeneic CAR T-cells as universal cells for adoptive CAR T-cell therapy. As for the last 3-4 clinical phase 1,2 trials have been initiated in several centers in incurable CD19 B-cell lymphomas and leukemias. Over 90% of the patients have fully responded to the treatment. About 40% of the treated patients are in complete remission. At the Medical Center, where treatment of patients will be shortly initiated, we are developing new means and procedures to attack solid tumors without harming the healthy counterpart tissue.


Human vaccines - infectious diseases

Session Introduction

Athar Ansari
J.N. Medical College, A.M.U. Aligarh-202002 (India)
Title: Obituary to polio through tool of social mobilization- A cross-sectional study in India

Biography: After completing Doctor of Medicine in Community Medicine at Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India in 1998, he joined the faculty in the Deptt. of Community Medicine, J.N. Medical College in 1999. He is teaching undergraduate and postgraduate medical students and also involved in training of medical interns in rural health programmes. He has got 87 papers published in the reputed national and international journals. He has worked as a team leader in polio eradication in India & associated with UNICEF, Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. (NPCIL), Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR).

Abstract: Background: Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious viral disease and mainly affects children under five years of age. Objective: The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the impact of social mobilization on families resistant to polio drops Materials & Methods: One round of polio drop administration during September, 2014 was selected randomly. Medical interns were trained as social mobilizers by the UNICEF. The social mobilizers visited the houses that refused to give polio drops to their children because of certain rumors and misguided beliefs. They tried to convince the family members that polio drops were safe and it did not hurt any religious and cultural sentiments. Results: Total number of resistant families, identified during first day of house to house activity was 270. Out of these, 180 families were visited by Team ‘A’. Rest of the houses were covered by other agencies. A large number of houses 106 (58.8%) were converted to ‘P’ houses and 74 houses (41.1%) remained resistant after the activity of Team ‘A’. These resistant houses were again visited by Team ‘B’ members. Out of these 74 houses, polio drops were administered in 57 (77.0%) houses. However, after maximum efforts of both the teams, only 17 (9.4%) houses remained extremely resistant. Conclusions: Large numbers of resistant families were converted to ‘P’ houses. However, some of the families remained resistant even after maximum efforts of the teams. These families might be the potent sources of polio infection in the community and they should be followed up strictly.


Baoming Jiang
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta
Title: Vaccination against rotavirus using a microneedle skin patch

Biography: Will be updated soon

Abstract: Rotavirus is a common cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea and deaths in young children. Two live oral vaccines have been licensed for use in over 100 countries and introduced into routine national immunization programs in more than 80 countries. Despite progress in the introduction of live oral rotavirus vaccines during the past decade, diarrhea remains a major disease burden and killer among children in low-income countries of Africa and Asia. The lower efficacy of licensed live oral vaccines, the need for a separate supply chain with large volume of cold storage, and the rare but severe association with intussusception all point to the need for a second generation vaccine that might overcome these shortcomings. In this presentation, I will discuss some lessons and challenges learnt from ongoing studies with live oral rotavirus vaccines. I will also describe new approaches to the design and manufacture of a new generation inactivated rotavirus vaccine for parenteral immunization against rotavirus. I will highlight the rationale for and progress in skin vaccination against rotavirus using a microneedle patch.


Manufacturing, Production, and Development of Vaccines

Session Introduction

Július Rajčáni
Alpha medical Pathology ltd, Martin, Slovakia Research Triangle Europe, Mosonmagyaróvár Hungary
Title: The not available herpesvirus vaccines: old problems and new challenges

Biography: Dr. Rajčáni graduated at the Med. Faculty of Comenius University in Bratislava, 1960, the defended his thesis „Pathogenesis of HSV-1 infection in mice“ for PhD (CSc) in 1970, at the Institute of Virology, Bratislava. Doctor of sciences (Science doctor, ScD) obtained in 1985. Thesis: Pathogenesis of Virus Infections (monography published in Slovak, 1983, Publ. House SAS, Veda, Bratislava, 312 pages). Languages: English, German, Hungarian, Russian Affiliations:

Abstract: The not yet marketed herpesvirus vaccines, such as the herpes simplex virus 1 and/or 2 (HSV-1/2) and Epstein Barr virus (EBV) derived antigens are is still in the focus of interest, especially from the point of immunotherapeutic and/or immunoprophylactic use. To understand the principles of both vaccination strategies (prophylactic and/or immunotherapeutic) the molecular pathogenesis of either HSV-1 and/or EBV infections should have been assessed in animal models. Even thoughHSV may spread via bloodstream, the main route of itsspread in the body occurs along peripheral nerves. HSV- and/or 2 can establish latency in ganglion cells and after reactivation they spread along axons back to the site of primary infection. Since neither the establishment of latency nor its reactivation can be fully controlled by virus neutralizing antibodies, the outcome of immune response greatly depends on the activity of cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes. The majority of important antigenic epitopes is located in envelope glycoproteins (such as gB, gD, gE, gC and gG) that are related to virus adsorption and penetration. The HSV-1 and/or HSV-2 experimental vaccines designed so far were either purified virion products derived from infected cells (subunit vaccines) or recombinant HSV coded proteins or attenuated live viruses lacking some of their virulence tools (such as gH and/or gE). The design of the EBV peptide vaccine was based on computer selected conservative and well immunogenic epitopes stimulating both T- as well as B-cells. Over 50 epitopes coming from 15 structural as well as nonstructural polypeptides were bound to synthetic microbeads along with the pathogen recognition receptor agonists functioning as adjuvants. Proprietary coupling chemistries allow to attach precise amounts of the selected combination of epitopes and PRR agonists to the microbeads in various combinations. A rabbit model has been elaborated for the efficacy of the peptide vaccine. In this model, 12 epitopes arranged in 5 combinations (out of 52 epitopes bound to the carriers in additional 12 combinations) were found protective.


Segundo Mesa Castillo
Psychiatric Hospital of Havana, CA 10800, Cuba
Title: Direct evidence of viral infection and mitochondrial alterations in the brain of fetuses at high risk for schizophrenia

Biography: Segundo Mesa Castillo. As Specialist in Neurology, he worked for 10 years in the Institute of Neurology of Havana, Cuba. He has worked in Electron Microscopic Studies on Schizophrenia for 32 years. He was awarded with the International Price of the Stanley Foundation Award Program and for the Professional Committee to work as a fellowship position in the Laboratory of the Central Nervous System Studies, National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke under Dr. Joseph Gibbs for a period of 6 months, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, Washington D.C. USA, June 5, 1990.

Abstract: There is increasing evidences that favor the prenatal beginning of schizophrenia. These evidences point toward intra-uterine environmental factors that act specifically during the second pregnancy trimester producing a direct damage of the brain of the fetus. The current available technology doesn't allow observing what is happening at cellular level since the human brain is not exposed to a direct analysis in that stage of the life in subjects at high risk of developing schizophrenia. Methods. In 1977 we began a direct electron microscopic research of the brain of fetuses at high risk from schizophrenic mothers in order to finding differences at cellular level in relation to controls. Results. In these studies we have observed within the nuclei of neurons the presence of complete and incomplete viral particles that reacted in positive form with antibodies to herpes simplex hominis type I [HSV1] virus, and mitochondria alterations. Conclusion. The importance of these findings can have practical applications in the prevention of the illness keeping in mind its direct relation to the aetiology and physiopathology of schizophrenia. A study of amniotic fluid cells in women at risk of having a schizophrenic offspring is considered. Of being observed the same alterations that those observed previously in the cells of the brain of the studied foetuses, it would intend to these women in risk of having a schizophrenia descendant, previous information of the results, the voluntary medical interruption of the pregnancy or an early anti HSV1 viral treatment as preventive measure of the later development of the illness.


modern technologies in vaccine discovery and development.

Session Introduction

Brendan Wren
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine London
Title: The application of Protein Glycan Coupling Technology for the production of inexpensive recombinant glycoconjugate vaccines

Biography: Brendan Wren completed his Ph.D at the age of 24 from the University of Leicester in Physical Chemistry. He then changed subject discipline and took a post-doctoral position at St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London. During this time he was the first to publish molecular cloning studies on Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori. In 1999 he moved to the LSHTM and was awarded a chair in Microbial Pathogenesis. Current research focuses on (i) glycosylation in bacterial pathogens and developing a “glycotoolbox” for glycoengineering, (ii) comparative phylogenomics and the evolution of bacterial virulence and (iii) mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. He has published > 300 papers in scientific journals.

Abstract: The most successful human vaccines are often glycoconjugate as the combination of a protein coupled to a glycan induces both a T-cell dependent and independent immune response evoking a protective and lasting immunity. However, the production of these vaccines requires multistep chemical synthesis, it is expensive and often have batch-to-batch variation. Our research programs have developed a process whereby glycoconjugate vaccines can be produced recombinantly in the E. coli cell in a single step purification procedure, termed Protein Glycan Coupling Technology (PGCT). Currently we are using PGCT to design novel glycoconjugate vaccines against the human pathogens Streptococcus pneumonia, Francisella tularensis Coxiella and Burkholderia pseudomallei. PGCT also allows different combinations of glycan and protein to be coupled in diverse host attenuating strains resulting in protection against multiple pathogens. Because PGCT considerably reduces the costs for the development and production of glycocojugate vaccines, we have started to use the platform technology for the development of veterinary vaccines, including a triple poultry glycoconjugate vaccine to protect against Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium perfringens. This lecture will describe the development of PGCT and its application for human and veterinary-derived glycoconjugate vaccines


Age-specific Immune Response to Vaccination

Session Introduction

Ma Luo
University of Manitoba Canada
Title: A Novel HIV vaccine targeting the 12 protease cleavage sites: preclinical evaluations

Biography: Dr. Ma Luo is an Adjunct Professor in Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba and Research Scientist, HIV and Host Genetics, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada. She received her M.Sc. from Chinese University of Science and Technology, Beijing, China and PhD from University of Manitoba, Canada. The major focus of her research in the recent years has been on uncovering the mechanism of resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1, to understand the interplay between host genetics, including human leukocyte antigens, KIR and other host genetic factors, with HIV virus, and to use this knowledge to develop vaccines and therapeutics.

Abstract: Background: HIV-1 protease mediates the cleavage of Gag, Gag-Pol and Nef precursor polyproteins in a highly specific and temporally regulated manner. Because a total of 12 cleavage reactions are required to generate a mature virion, generating focused immune response targeting the sequences surrounding the protease cleavage sites (PCS) could drive viral mutations to its disadvantage. We conducted a proof of concept study with Cynomolgus macaques and pathogenic SIVmac239 as a model and used a modified recombinant vesicular stomatitis vector and nanocarriers to deliver 12 20-amino acid antigens. We showed that a vaccine targeting the sequences surrounding the 12 protease cleavage sites is promising at prevention of HIV-1 infection and disease progression. Methods: Twelve rVSVpcs were used to immunize 12 Cynomolgus macaques and nanopackaged PCS peptides were used as a boost. The immunized macaques and 5 controls were repeatedly challenged intrarectally with an increased dosage of SIVmac239. Antibody and T cell responses to the PCS peptides, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts and challenge dosage were monitored. 454 Pyrosequencing was conducted to analyze break-through viruses and the amino acid mutations surrounding the PCS sites were correlated with viral load. Results: Antibody and T cell responses to the 12 PCS protected macaques against higher dosage of SIVmac239 intrarectal challenge (p=0.005, R=0.42). The vaccine group maintained higher CD4+ counts (p=0.0002) than the controls weeks after being infected. Analysis of viral mutations around 12 PCS of 276 samples (14 to 20 sampling points/monkey) detected extensive mutations. These mutations, both conserved and non-conserved amino substitutions around PCS, are correlated with lower viral load(p< 0.0001). Conclusions: Our study showed that a vaccine targeting the sequences surrounding the 12 protease cleavage sites is promising at prevention of HIV-1 infection and disease progression. It demonstrated that the pathogenic SIVmac239 is extremely vulnerable to any amino acid alternations around PCS. Targeting PCS of HIV-1 could be an effective vaccine approach.


Veterinary vaccines

Session Introduction

Fariba
Razi vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Karaj, Iran
Title: Comparative evaluation of antibody positive titer by ELISA and IFAT in Theileria annulata vaccinated cattle in Iran

Biography: Fariba Golchinfar has completed her M.Sc in Biotechnology at the age of 26 years from Olom Tahghighat Tehran University from Iran. She is Working as a assistant professor in department of Proteomics and Biochemistry in Razi Vaccine & Serum Research Institute , IRAN. She has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract: Comparative evaluation of antibody positive titer by ELISA and IFAT in Theileria annulata vaccinated cattle in Iran F.Golchinfar, R.Madani, Department of Proteomics and Biochemistry, Razi vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Karaj, Iran An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to evaluate antibody positive titer in vaccinated and non vaccinated cattle using schizont infected myeloid cells as antigen. The result was compared with indirect fluorescent antibody level in the same animals. For this study 116 milking cows, 95 vaccinated and 21 non vaccinated, were bleeding in order to prepare sera. They were tested with both ELISA and IFA tests. 94 sera had positive antibody titer and 22 sera were negative through ELISA test but with IFA test only 89 sera showed positive antibody titer and the 27 were negative. Thereby it is concluded that the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA test in comparison with IFA test were 95.5% and 66.6% respectively. This study, generally, indicated that ELISA could be an effective test for seroepdomiological investigations of bovine tropical Theileriosis and it is considered to be valid as an additional test to distinguish the vaccinated from non vaccinated cattle in order to schedule vaccination programme.


Rasool
Razi vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Karaj, Iran
Title: Development a Peptide based Elisa for differentiation of infected and vaccinated Sera's chickens

Biography: Biography: Rasool Madani has completed his Ph.D at the age of 32 years from Delhi university and Postdoctoal studies from Toronto university. He is head of proteomics and Biochemistry Dept.of Razi Vaccine and Serum Research institute. He has published more than 50 Papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an chif editors of Archives of Razi and Veterinary Journals.

Abstract: Development a Peptide based Elisa for differentiation of infected and vaccinated Sera's chickens Madani, R., Golchinfar, F., Emami,T, . Department of Proteomics and Biochemistry, Razi vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Karaj, Iran Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious disease in poultry and outbreaks can have dramatic economic and health implications. For effective disease surveillance, rapid and sensitive assays are needed to detect antibodies against AI virus (AIV) proteins. In order to support eradication efforts of avian influenza (AI) infections in poultry, the implementation of “DIVA” vaccination strategies, enabling the Differentiation of infected from Vaccinated Animals have been recommended by international organizations. A system, based on the detection of antibodies to the Non-Structural (NS1) protein of AI has been proposed to enable the detection of field exposure in vaccinated flocks, and through this detection, infected flocks may be properly managed. In this project we have used two conserved peptides of NS1 protein to develop a peptide based ELISA method. This ELISA could screen the infected and vaccinated sera due to their titer of antibody. Following experimentally infection and vaccinate of chickens, antibodies to the peptides of the NS1 protein were detected by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). These findings indicate that there is a significant difference in the viral replication in chickens, resulting in a variation in the production of antibodies to NS1, as detected by the peptide- based ELISA used. These results demonstrate the specific ELISA for anti NS1 antibodies that have diagnostic value for the poultry industries.